You can find all the papers presented in ICORD 21 over here along with paper ID, title, authors and abstract

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Paper ID: 6

Store Atmospherics, Shopping Motives and Buyer Behaviour- An Indian consumer perspective

Ramchandra Alias Ameet Chate (Research Resource Centre, Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belagavi,Karnataka) and Dr. Shankargouda Bharamanaikar (VisvesvarayaTechnological University, Belagavi, Karnataka (India))

Abstract: In the modern era of marketing, creating pleasurable experiences by enhancing store atmospherics, which we coin as ambience, has emerged as a deciding factor for profitability of firms. Hence, retailers have been investing a lot to create positive experiences and identifying the factors that stimulate the conative, affective and cognitive factors.
Current increased usage in Information and Communication Technology, free knowledge sources have made the consumer more aware of substitutes and better options at better prices. Hence studying the impact of store atmospherics, which include lighting, visual merchandising, Color that stimulates positive experiences have been studied to increase the profitability of retailers and improve customer experiences from user’s perspective.
The study undertaken will help to understand the dimension in designing the store atmospherics, which are most effective in attracting, the customers and affecting their conative, cognitive and affective replies. This study is based on the user’s experience in buying the product and evaluating the factors that stimulate the buying intention through the usability audit. The findings of this investigation will help the retailers to develop better in store atmospherics, helpful in increasing the sales and consumer loyalty that contribute to the profitability.

Paper ID: 7

The impact of culture on design versus design on culture

Lau Langeveld (Delft University of Technology) and Amarendra Kumar Das (IIT Guwahati)

Abstract: The effect is not reversible from culture to design, and from design to culture, both directions have different parameters to reach the goal of “The Impact”. The significance of culture and design must first be investigated, regardless of the impact. Then identify the influencing factors for achieving an effective result. The influencing factors are arranged in the order of importance.
Culture versus Design shows the difference in manifestation. Culture is about what happens in society and Design is about realising the things that meet people's needs.
The literature study must provide validation of the influence factors. These are studied and explained in two different cases: 1.a. A design from India that has changed the behaviour of the Indian. 1.b. A cultural change in a part of India that has changed society. 2.a. A design from the Netherlands that has changed people's behaviour. 2.b. A cultural change by stopping gas exploration in the Netherlands.
The two case studies will give insight into the impact of Design and Culture, but also the difference between the Dutch and Indian Culture. The use of the next description of culture and design must belong to the case studies.
Culture is a common characteristic of a group or category of people who differ from each other. The culture of a particular profession can, therefore, described with the distinctive features of that profession. Change of aggregation level means changes in the concept of culture. For example, children receive a cultural anchor from home that differs from the professional culture taught at school or the workplace. Culture is the most complicated concept, but it is a compound word with its many meanings. But everyone within a group forms a community that lives, works and celebrates within the theoretical concept of culture. Culture as a concept encompasses a large number of knowledge areas in our digital age: education, learning, social, economic, industrial production, organisation, politics, religion, art, lifestyle, habits, etc. Here only the knowledge that is more closely related to the design directly or indirectly is considered.
Design is a creative process for solving problems of economic, social and cultural issues. A design process goes through many paths that are laid down in a large number of methods, sequential, linear, circular, spiral, waterfall, etc. The common goal is to create or search for a solution. Creating a solution is often carried out by a designer and searching for an answer is usually carried out by technocrats. The designer is allowed to fully deepen his creative skills within limits to achieve a result that enriches the community. The technocrats are looking for solutions that can be a new combination of partial solutions; the combinatorial power plays an essential role in this.
Design of a material object consists of observable elements and principles and contributes to the cultural identity of its environment. But a non-material object has no physical expression. Still, the elements and principles are based on audio, visual, thoughts, taste and smell.

Paper ID: 10

Eye Tracking to Understand Impact of Ageing on Mobile Phone Applications

Antony William Joseph (Madurai Kamaraj University), Jeevithashree Dv (Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore), Kamal Preet Singh Saluja (Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore), Abhishek Mukhopadhyay (Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore), Dr. Ramaswami Murugesh (Madurai Kamaraj University) and Dr. Pradipta Biswas (Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore)

Abstract: Usage of smartphones and tablet devices have been increasing rapidly with multi-touch interaction and powerful configurations. Performing tasks on mobile phones becomes more complex as people age thereby increasing their cognitive load. In this context, we conducted an eye-tracking study with 50 participants between the age of 20 to 60 years and above who are living in Bangalore, India. The study aims to investigate how ageing affects user experience on mobile phones while performing complex tasks. The study focuses on estimating cognitive load of participants while performing tasks on mobile phones using eye tracking metrics. The study consists of five tasks to be performed on an android phone under naturalistic scenarios by each participant, wearing eye tracking glasses. We recorded fixation rate, saccadic rate, average fixation duration, maximum fixation duration and standard deviation of pupil dilation for left and right eyes respectively for each participant. Results from our study show that ageing affects user experience on mobile phones while performing complex tasks. We noted that, participants aged between 50 to 60+ years had difficulties in completing tasks and showed increased cognitive workload. We also noted that participants took longer fixation duration to complete tasks which involved copy-paste operations. Additionally, we aim to identify design implications and provide design recommendations for designers and manufacturers.

Paper ID: 13

Analyzing ocular parameters for web browsing and graph visualization

Somnath Arjun (Indian Institute of Science), Kamalpreet Singh Saluja (Indian Institute of Science) and Pradipta Biswas (Indian Institute of Science)

Abstract: This paper proposes a set of techniques to investigate eye gaze and fixation patterns while users interact with electronic user interfaces. In particular, two case studies are presented - one on analyzing eye gaze while interacting with deceptive materials in web pages and another on analyzing graphs in standard computer monitor and virtu-al reality displays. We analyzed spatial and temporal distributions of eye gaze fixa-tions and sequence of eye gaze movements. We used this information to propose new design guidelines to avoid deceptive materials in web and user-friendly repre-sentation of data in 2D graphs. In 2D graph study we identified that area graph has lowest number of clusters for user's gaze fixations and lowest average response time. The results of 2D graph study was implemented in virtual and mixed reality environment. Along with this, it was observed that the duration while interacting with deceptive materials in web pages is independent of the number of fixations. Furthermore, web-based data visualization tool for analyzing eye tracking data from single and multiple users was developed.

Paper ID: 14

Dimensions of Future Fashion Education: Sustainable Pedagogy and Strategy

Vishaka Agarwal (National Institute of Fashion Technology, (Min.of Textiles,Govt of India),Bhopal)

Abstract: Fashion is a fast changing phenomenon and looking at the current state of world, the future fashion would have very different dimension in terms of material used to give shape to fashion products. Also Fashion would find spaces in various unexplored avenues to make the consumer feel more comfortable. More Eco-friendly sustainable raw materials and methods of production needs to be adopted to put a check on fast depleting resource of Earth which would leave reduced amount of carbon footprints on the Earth's surface. Recycling, Reuse and Redesign of materials to produce new fashionable products which are Eco-Adaptable needs to be designed. Materials generated out of natural waste needs to be developed. Frugal innovation would be the key element to be considered.
Design would be visible in every sphere of life not only restricted to Garments and lifestyle living accessories, but in many more avenues of communication and commutation which are the key aspects of life with elements of sustainability incorporated. The ways of dressing and lifestyle living would undergo sea-change in the coming next few decades.
Therefore, the Fashion fraternity has to look at things in wider perspective and Design institutions have to prepare curriculum looking at the wider perspective of future fashion needs which requires the future fashion professionals to have multi-dimensional talent and knowledge of \"Everything and Everywhere\" to meet the future fast changing requirement of co-existence of \"Environment and Life\" on Earth. Looking at this wider perspective of future needs Professionals, technologists and Academicians associated with Fashion design and technology would be interviewed to understand the pedagogy and strategy which needs to be innovated in Fashion education to be looked for Future Fashion .

Paper ID: 15

Multi-inspirational Design for Additively Manufacturable Products

Pritam Shetty (IIITDM, Kancheepuram), Krupakhar G (IIITDM, Kancheepuram) and Jayachandra Bingi (IIITDM, Kancheepuram)

Abstract: The additively manufacturable products are emerging as a part of modern product revolution and innovation. This paper discusses the application of bio-inspired design in making the additively manufacturable spin coater as a case study. As a part of this, the method called multi-inspirational design for additive manufacturing (MiDAM) is proposed. The application of method resulted in the additively manufacturable, low cost and affordable spin coater, with scope for tuneable resonance vibration just by varying the dimensional and material parameters. The possibility for installing the dampers in the designed form contribute to better vibration isolation, still maintaining the aesthetic appearance. Further, the work shows the possibility of exploiting the bio-inspired design to support additive manufacturing of different products.

Paper ID: 19

A Role-Based Prototyping Approach for Human-Centered Design in Industry

Nuno Miguel Martins Pacheco (Technical University Munich), Anand Vazhapilli Sureshbabu (Technical University of Munich) and Markus Zimmermann (Technical University Munich)

Abstract: In previous work, the so-called role-based prototyping approach (RBPA) was proposed. It is for interdisciplinary student teams and puts strong emphasis on autonomy and proactivity. Progress in the project is measured by the three lenses of human-centered design, feasibility, viability, and desirability. It guides the students on important aspects of fuzzy-front product development by providing a template of the overall process and specific tools, e.g., an adapted kanban board. This approach was limited to academia. In this paper, an application of the RBPA in an industry setting is discussed. Industry settings are different from classical fuzzy-front end scenarios because a context is given. To address this, the roles of the proposed approach were refined by assigning specific tasks to incorporate customer requirements. The result was deployed in a university course where students were given design tasks from industry. Each team is guided through this process with the help of daily coaching sessions and their progress is tracked, recorded, and evaluated. The results are then discussed in detail with an outlook for the future.

Paper ID: 21

Capturing knowledge transfer using Zachman framework in bioinspired design process

Sunil Sharma (lovely professional university) and Prabir Sarkar (IIT Ropar)

Abstract: Natural entities are source of inspiration for designers as they exhibit nature’s strategies that are unique and novel. Many products have been designed in past using bioinspired design process. For understanding and absing principles from nature, the knowledge of biological entity is a must. Knowledge capture and representation for bioinspired de-sign is complex process. Firstly, the biological entities are documented in different places such as books, articles, blogs etc. A designer might need to spend considerable time while shuffling through these documents without coming to any conclusion. Secondly, biological knowledge is complex and from different domain. This complexity at the entity level as well as the retrieving captured knowledge can lead to confusion and frustration. Thirdly, the roles of different stakeholders are not clearly defined. Hence, the knowledge collection, compilation, usage and representation process is not clearly defined. We, hereby, provide an organizational approach to represent bioinspired design knowledge collection, compilation, and usage and representation process using Zachman framework. Zachman framework provides the descriptive representation of enterprise architecture, uses 6 primitives and can handle complex systems. In this research, we understand and apply Zachman framework to capture and represent bioinspired design knowledge with an organizational viewpoint. The goal of this research is to organize and represent captured knowledge transfer, building and representing process and make it readily available for designers who can use it to make design decisions.

Paper ID: 22

Digital Health Interventions to Enhance Patient Care for Indian Nurses

Vydianathan Ramaswami (V-SIGN, Vellore Institute of technology (VIT), Vellore) and Raj Arjunan (Indian Institute of Technology - Madras)

Abstract: The Indian government and private health sector in India have neglected nurses. India’s public health expenditure remains bleak at 1.4% of GDP that is lower than many lower income countries . India is the second most populous nation in the world, with 17.5 per cent of the global population (Census of India, 2011).
India stands at 75th rank among around 133 developing countries with respect of number of nurses; India has only 1.4 nurses available per thousand population. The country needs an additional 2.4 million nurses as on 2019. Despite being a major supplier of the health work force to the world, the health care industry of India is suffering a wide gap .
Poor infrastructure, lack of quality control of academic curriculum, paucity of qualified trainers and geographical imbalance of nursing institutes across the country has led to an alarming situation. To overcome the dismal working and social conditions have also triggered off large-scale migration to high-income nations of Indian nurses further exacerbating the nursing shortages in the country . A significant percentage of senior nurses from the existing workforce are due to retire taking with them years of invaluable experiential knowledge thus the brain drain worsening the existing dire situation.
According to Indian Nursing Council there are total of 8,770 nursing institutes across India supplying 0.27 million nursing graduates to the healthcare industry annually . How is India going to build such large capacity of 2.4 million qualified, trained and competent nurses in a short time to serve its citizens growing health care needs across unevenly distributed Indian populace?
India’s rapid population growth, increasing life expectancy and changing lifestyles, changing patterns of disease, creating a strong demand burden on the health care industry. It is starkly evident that India lags in health care spend, infrastructure, qualified and competent workforce.
Need for integrating Information & Communication Technology Assisted Learning (ICTAL) to build large capacity of educated, trained and competent nursing workforce. This Learning Systems consists of blended learning techniques to virtual reality simulations for improving nurse’s clinical skills, subject knowledge, critical thinking abilities, decision-making, and teamwork.
Student and Professional Nurses can access healthcare based interactive content and immersive real-time simulations to practice using digital devices for improving their clinical competence, reduce human errors thus enabling to deliver enhanced patient care.
This study proposes to design technological interventions for mitigating risk due to lack of competent nursing workforce in India’s impending future.

Paper ID: 25

Introducing Visual Literacy activities for Primary school children in India

Swati Mittal (Indian Institute of Technology kanpur), Mritunjay Kumar (Indian Institute of Technology kanpur), Ahmed Sameer (Indian Institute of Technology Dhanbad) and Satyaki Roy (Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur)

Abstract: Visual Literacy is an essential skill to comprehend and interpret visual meaning efficiently. Previous research has claimed visual Literacy to be necessary for thinking, communication, and learning. Several researchers have realized the importance of visual awareness in children, which does not only benefit their visual skills but also their verbal skills, motivation, engagement, independence, and confidence. Despite having multiple advantages of introducing visual Literacy in the school curriculum, scant attention has been paid to introduce visual Literacy for school children in India. This study is an intervention to introduce visual Literacy through VL activity-book and scaffolding for primary school children. Several visual literacy tasks were developed and tested with primary school children in Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh, India). Preliminary study findings and recommendations are discussed. We argue for the design and implementation of such visual literacy activities as a part of the curriculum for Indian children to develop an eye for it and understand visuals in a better way.

Paper ID: 28

The role of letter anatomy in Type Design: An eye-tracking study of Bengali letters

Subhajit Chandra (Department of Design, Shiv Nadar University) and D. Udaya Kumar (Department of Design, IIT Guwahati)

Abstract: Letter anatomy provides the information about structural formation of letterforms that are necessary during designing of letters. Letter identification is a fundamental phenomenon for reading a single letter or word or continuous text in any condition (Chahine, 2012). Without appropriate letter identification, reading is not comfortable enough. This paper discusses the process of Bengali letter identification. The aim here is to understand the role of specific letter feature in the letter identification process. Here, an eye-tracking study has been conducted to identify the involvement of letter features in reading. The test was performed with Bengali script and the letters were exposed to low contrast. It is presumed that the readers will identify the letters by their key structural aspect and such information will be captured by the eye-tracking device.
The elementary unit of letter construction are the basic anatomical features of letterforms. The designation ‘anatomical feature’ indicates a specific letter-part that is unique in letter formation. The letter identification is a process of decoding and encoding of such structural information. They are the fundamental components of letter identification. This paper explains the process of Bengali letter identification and reveals the letter-part information by recognizing the anatomical feature. In order to reveal the letter features, we exposed the letters under visual stress to establish the significance of anatomical features. Pelli et al. already proved that the letters expose their features under condition of visual stress (Pelli, Levi, & Chung, 2004; Pelli, Palomares, & Majaj, 2004; Pelli, Burns, Farell, & Moore-Page, 2006; Pelli, et al., 2006). In relation to the previous statement, an eye-tracking study was conducted under visual stress to understand the letter identification process of Bengali. The objective of the experiment is to direct the participants to identify the letters features during reading process. Here, we use the low contrast technique to hide letter stroke information that reduces the chance of getting recognised easily at once in the peripheral vision, but only recognizable in foveal vision. Participants have to read the letters with precise attention to identify letters under visual stress condition (Pelli, Burns, Farell, & Moore-Page, 2006; Pelli, et al., 2006; Pelli & Tillman, 2007).
The study has been done to extract the information about the vital letter-parts that involves in letter identification process. The result indicates that there is an active involvement of specific letter-parts in letter identification process and a list of specific or distinctive letter features has been prepared to guide type designers. A letter is distinguished by the specific letter-part or parts from other letters during the course of letter identification process. The combination of common and unique (specific by definition) letter-parts make the letter unique in the identification process. It is essential to know such letter information that can be useful during designing of letterforms.

Paper ID: 29

Factors to look into for designing interiors of long distance pilgrimage buses in India: A survey based study

G Chinmaya Krishnan (Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati) and Debkumar Chakrabarti (Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati)

Abstract: There are not many differences in buses used for long journeys for pilgrim-age purposes, with a common deluxe bus as regards to interiors. Passengers of different attitudes and comfort perceptions do differ. On inquiry to pilgrims and tour organizers in a preliminary investigation, it was noticed that sufficient attention is required to be given while designing the interiors of such public carriers but not much attention is paid so far, and no specific study was also carried out and normal buses with need-based modifications are being used. This may be due to the lack of in-depth knowledge about vehicle design, vehicle ergonomics etc., and the lack of sufficient financial strength of these body building companies to employ knowledgeable per-sons. This study aims at understanding the critical factors affecting passenger physical comfort as concerned with interior aspects of buses for long journeys. The scope of the study is limited only to the buses operating under pilgrimage activities. The survey was done to find out those factors and the samples were taken from Vrindavan, Dwaraka and Somanatham. The pilgrims were selected based on purposive and random sampling as the target respondents were mostly senior citizens for whom the concept of comfort and fatigue are pronounced. Questionnaires and meeting observations were used to have their views on physical comfort, accessories and other facilities, seating considerations, the place for movements etc. The study finds certain issues that appear to be vital for designing long-distance pilgrimage purpose buses..

Paper ID: 30

Can you see my pain? Evocative objects for comprehending chronic pain

Jonathan Mathew (Independent Scholar) and Vivek Kant (Indian Institute of Technology Bombay)

Abstract: Chronic pain presents a rather unique design challenge. Unlike the traditional view of pain in which it is often to be averted, chronic pain cannot be simply done away with. Therefore, chronic pain requires an understanding of how people live with it everyday. Thus, the emphasis of our approach is to address pain in terms of comprehending it. one approach to chronic pain management is through seeking solidarity, achieving it, however, is not a straightforward matter. In this paper, we adopt a research by design approach to the design of evocative objects for chronic pain management through developing solidarity. Our article comprehends pain through a variety of critical perspectives, most notably from the theorist Elaine Scarry. It details the design process using a fish-trap model to arrive at the design of an evocative object to support solidarity between the one who suffers (self) and the one who seeks to understand the suffering (the other). In other words, the aim is to move beyond the notion of pain as measured to that of pain as revealed and expressed.

Paper ID: 31

Historiographical Study: Mapping the Topoi of Sustainable Design in Indian Context

Asit Bhatt (National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) Gandhinagar)

Abstract: In Order of Things, Michel Foucault subjected the discourse of historiography to a kind of Kantian analysis in order to uncover the epistemological conditions of the possibilities – ‘historical a priori’. For Foucault, there existed, for each historical era, a distinctive epistemological structure – an ‘episteme’; which then governed the manner in which thinkers would think and the discourse would be formed, without even directly intruding on the consciousness of the thinkers.
Here, the question is this: what is the ‘episteme’, if there is one, which forms and even informs ‘Sustainable Design’ research, education and thinking? and what role Indian worldview in general and its values in particular play within the discourse of ‘Sustainable Design’?
The paper argues that our current models of ‘Design Thinking’ are informed by European Renaissance's ‘humanist’ and ‘rationalist’ notions – mind’s autonomy over the material body / matter whilst carrying forward Victorian ‘utilitarian’ impulse. Our 'Design Thinking' is indeed anthropocentric – only to enhance human life on earth and thus, limiting in the context of what is broadly defined within the rubric of “Posthumanism”. Here, we need a paradigm shift to view us not as distinct, but as the intrinsic part of all living (life) as well as non-living (matter).
The paper echoes Ramanujanian, somewhat archetypal, question \"Is there an India way of (Design) thinking?\" whilst remaining critical to dualism – Man versus Environment, Culture versus Nature, Mind versus Matter etc. in favor of the ‘advaita’ (non-dual) – the holistic worldview of the Indian thought.
Eminent Indian psychologist Sudhir Kakar has noted that in India, people have a different kind of relationship to their immediate environment than the people in the west. Kakar opined that for the Indian people, the outer objects do not have a separate independent existence but these objects are intimately related to the self. In this precise sense, for people in India, there lie almost no distinction between their environment and themselves.
यस्तु सर्वानि भूतान्यात्मन्येवानुपश्यति ।
सर्वभूतेषु चात्मान ततो न विजुगुप्सते ॥
The wise man, who realizes all beings as not distinct from his own self, and his own self as the self of all beings, does not, by virtue of that perception, hate anyone. (Isha Upanishad:verse 6)
The paper, partly reflective and partly research, involves a historiographical study in relation to the ‘humanising’ motif that first occurred in European Renaissance and later in the mid 19th century England in order to develop an ethical as well as a moral framework in what had emerged, after the industrial revolution, as an increasingly secularised and disenchanted world. The roots of our prevailing anthropocentic models of ‘Design Thinking’ may be traced back to European Renaissance and Victorian England, however, the paper concludes that in the midst of current ecological crisis, an alternative ethico-moral framework is required to examine our present cultural production. Here, traditional Indian thought namely the idea of ‘advaita’ (non-dual) might serve as a priori ground or ‘episteme’ for the Sustainable Design research, education and thinking.

Paper ID: 32

Effect of Tool Handle Design Parameters on Upper Extremity Muscle Performance in Periodontology

Vibha Bhatia (PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh), Jagjit Singh Randhawa (PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh), Parveen Kalra (PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh), Ashish Jain (Dr. Harvansh Singh Judge Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospitals, Punjab University, Chandigarh, India) and Vishakha Grover (Dr. Harvansh Singh Judge Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospitals, Punjab University, Chandigarh, India)

Abstract: Periodontists- Dental professionals associated with tooth scaling(cleaning) tasks are often prone to Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders(WMSDs). Tooth scaling involves the repetitive and forceful grip of scaling tool handle. Trauma related to hectic scaling job leave periodontists susceptible to upper extremity disorders like Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTDs) like Carpal Tunnel Syndrome(CTS) etc. Limited studies have been conducted to evaluate effect of tool handle design on upper extremity muscles involved in periodontal task. Optimally designed dental scaling tool design is expected to reduce the prevalence of WMSDs in periodontists. Twelve variations of modified dental scaling tool handle sleeves were fabricated using 3-d printing technology. Design parameters like diameter and shape were assessed while performing simulated scaling task. The individual and interactive effects of design parameters on upper extremity flexor/extensor muscles were recorded by Electromyography (EMG). Thumb pinch force readings were recorded simultaneously. Results of the study indicated the reduction in muscle and thumb pinch forces in octagonal handle having 11mm diameter. Proving taper to the tool handle design was also responsible for reduction in muscle loads. The current study not only aims at guiding the periodontists for adopting optimally designed tool but also engineers and researchers to design ergonomically sound tool handle designs.

Paper ID: 33

An experimental investigation on postural risks in floor mopping

Mohammed Rajik Khan (National Institute of Technology, Rourkela) and Gouri Naik (National Institute of Technology, Rourkela)

Abstract: The present study investigates awkward human body postures adopted in floor mopping by the push and figure-of-eight methods. Three mopping professionals each in three different height categories (5th, 50th, and 95th percentile person according to Indian anthropometric data) participated in floor mopping experiments conducted in two different laboratory set-ups. In the first set-up, continuous positional data of participant’s joints (wrist, elbow, and shoulder) were recorded using a six-dimensional electromagnetic tracking system (ETS) and angular variation of the joints was evaluated for the two mopping techniques. In the second set-up, the three-dimensional positional data of body movements were recorded using optical motion capture cameras in mopping experiments to identify Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) score at extreme postures. The total RULA score obtained in push (4.6-5) for all height categories is less than the figure-of-eight (6.4-6.6) method, indicating less postural load during push mopping technique. This research confirms that mopping professionals are highly susceptible to postural loads/discomfort and the need of ergonomic design solutions are essential to reduce the observed risk.

Paper ID: 37

Improvement of Operator Comfort of a Vibratory Compactor

Gomathinayagam Arumugam (Product Development Centre, Larsen & Toubro Limited), Babu Subramaniam (Product Development Centre, Larsen & Toubro Limited), Antony Stephen Paul Vincent (Product Development Centre, Larsen & Toubro Limited), Raja Ganesh Rajamanikam (Product Development Centre, Larsen & Toubro Limited) and Boopathi Duraisamy (Product Development Centre, Larsen & Toubro Limited)

Abstract: Vibratory compactors are primarily used for compaction tasks in earthwork and road building. They are regularly exposed to vibrations caused by the moving elements within them like drum, engine etc., and the unevenness of the road or soil profile. Because of these vibrations, the structures are subjected to dynamic loads and the operators are endangered to health issues. A higher prevalence of spine problem, pain in chest, abdomen, arm and shoulder are found in the drivers of the compactors. Strict norms concerning these health issues make the design of an effective operator compartment inevitable on the compactors. At present Indian earth moving equipment manufacturers follow ISO 2631-1 and ISO 5349-1 to ensure the operator comfort in the compactors. These standards insist practical testing of the operator compartment which can be time consuming. The frequency of dynamic loading plays a pivotal role in determining the operator comfort as well as the damage of the operator compartment structures. The major vibrating frequencies prevailing in the compactor are its drum operating frequencies and engine rotating speeds. In order to protect the operator from health issues and the structures from failure, the operator compartment should be designed in a way that its natural frequencies evade the major vibrating frequencies prevailing in the compactor. In this work an effort has been made to develop a methodology using finite element analysis (FEA) to improve the operator comfort of the compactors. The FEA results have been compared with that of experimental testing and the FEA methodology has been fine-tuned to get a good correlation. In future this FEA approach will be used to finalize the operator compartment design prior to practical testing with an objective of reducing the development cost and time and ensuring the operator comfort.

Paper ID: 38

The Future of Home Service: Integration of User Behavior and Scenario Planning in the Domestic Plumbing Service Design

Sachin Shivaji Jadhav (Indian Institute of Technology) and Pratul Ch. Kalita (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati)

Abstract: In the present era, with rapidly changing measures and uncertainty, it is beneficial for researchers, organizations, as well as for the government to anticipate future events. The substantial economic boost in the on-demand service sector leads to the development of home services in India. On-demand services have created new opportunities and challenges to all Stakeholders in delivering products and services. As increasingly products and services sold over the Internet, it becomes all the more essential to build up knowledge of design in planning and anticipating future events. This paper provides user behavior analysis and plausible futuristic scenarios with the practical case of domestic plumbing services. The research aims to identify the interrelationships and significance of service aspects in domestic plumbing. The study also aims to understand the future in this context through scenario development.
We conducted in-depth interviews, including exploratory surveys. The purpose of the survey was to study the ‘plumbing tools’ and service aspect’ in domestic plumbing. During the survey, we critically observed the possible requirement and relationships of plumbing tools, service providers, and users. Structured questionnaires were developed to study various aspects of stakeholders of the system viz. plumbing service provider, plumber, and users. Further, insights from the survey result were incorporated into scenario planning. Scenario planning was used to discover new strategic options for the future and to gain a deeper level of foresight.
The study revealed aspects of customer service requirements and related components viz. corrective maintenance, preventive maintenance, operation time, service frequency, replacement of spare parts, consumables, fittings, and pricing. Chi-Square test results show a significant difference of frequency of preventive maintenance with residential typology (sig.=0.001); servicemen responsiveness with residential typology (sig = 0.019). Also, from the One-way ANOVA test, it has been observed that the frequency of dripping faucets issues significantly varies with occupation (sig = 0.005) and residential typology (sig = 0.039). Running toilet issue significantly vary with locality (sig = 0.036) and leaky pipes issue with residential typology (sig = 0.004). Scenario planning accounts for the effect of multiple drivers of change, trends, and delivers significant possibilities, risks, and opportunities. In this study, we identified the driving forces of change and trends for domestic plumbing from four perspectives viz. political, economic, social and technological. The political drivers of change are Skill India, Digital India, Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana, and National Skill Development Corporation. The economic drivers of change are gig economy, family income, demand, and supply. The social drivers of change are buying habits, lifestyle, education, and online platforms. The technological drivers of change are video in real-time, mixed reality, and drone delivery.
This study provides an integrative approach of user behavior study and scenario planning for service design with special emphasis to domestic plumbing. It acts as a road map for service design in general; primarily to similar service sectors viz. electrical maintenance, domestic appliances maintenance, carpentry, etc. The study will benefit students and practitioners in the field of service design. It would finally contribute to design for development.

Paper ID: 41

Design Thinking for Long-Term Product Planning

Shamit Shrivastav (Indian School of Design and Innovation, Mumbai) and Rahul Joshi (Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.)

Abstract: Product Planning is the foremost and an integral part of the NPD (New Product Development) process today. The primary role of the product planning function is to define and conceptualize the \"right\" product – right for the customers, right for the business, right for all the key stakeholders, and right for the environment. The Product Planning process involves understanding the customer needs through market research, translating those needs into product specifications, and creating a positive business case for the new product. However, with the rapidly changing market scenario, intense competition, the advent of new technologies, and regulatory trends, the conventional product planning process does not always lead to the expected business output. product planners must get the new product definition right in the first attempt itself. Engineers in the Research and Development (R and D) function use this product definition to evaluate the feasibility of the design and develop real products. It is, therefore, evident that the margin for error in the Product Planning process is zero. Design Thinking is a human-centered problem-solving approach that can solve a social, economic, environmental, or business problem and uncover high opportunity areas. Using a case study of a leading Indian automotive and construction equipment OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer), this paper demonstrates how design thinking enabled an organization to conceptualize a new category-creating product that captured significant market share in just two years of launch and how the organization developed it in less than three years. This paper illustrates the potential of the Design Thinking process for new product development and discusses the possibilities of scaling it to different sectors. The paper also explains the critical roles of a designer in this process when working in a cross-functional team

Paper ID: 43

Harnessing immersive technology with art and design: A conceptual design procedure with the aid of virtual reality

Sumana Som (Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad), Deepak John Mathew (Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad) and Kim Vincs (Swinburne University of Technology)

Abstract: Art and design are increasingly important in Indian school curricula. But there is no specific pedagogy to teach this subject. Different school follow different methodology to teach art. For instance, some school follows traditional Indian and western painting, clay modelling and art history, on the other hand, few schools follow only craft making technique and copying traditional folk art such as Madhubani painting, Warli painting and Kalamezhuthu painting. As a result, there are few significant gapes are identified in student learning. The majority of students neither achieving basic understanding of creating art or develop design nor skill. Although, Art education in India in 2010 reported clearly that it is a significant tool for equipping students to simulate cognitive development and encourage innovative and creative thinking. And it also emphasis on using electronic media aids to teach this subject. Nevertheless, the majority of the school are giving less importance to teach art and they do not take the initiative to develop better pedagogy.
However, education pedagogy in recent decades has struggled to develop new methods and tools for better learning. Virtual Reality (VR) is one of the major solutions of technology-driven pedagogy. It provides a super real, simulation-based environment for teaching and training. It allows to visualize of abs content, provide information with clarity, and allow students to actively participate in the learning environment. Bodily engagement in free space will give them playful engagement with the topic and they will be able to explore it from a different point of view. The teacher can explain the topic in many possible ways and make the student understand easily. On the other hand, a playful interactive teaching design can enhance learning motivation, engage more deeply and inspire the student to learn. In this changing condition, the pedagogy of art and design requires new tools and methodology.
In this study, the researcher introduced a concept of a teaching-learning design using of virtual reality technology so that the grade 6 student learns art and design. To develop this immersive environment based on VR, the researcher followed a research methodology based on practice. The content is developed on elements of art and the topics have been chosen from National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) art education program. During this learning phase, the student will learn to observe and draw simple objects. They began to understand of contour line, shape, form, the difference between 2D and 3D objects and perspective and student learn best by experiencing abs points in a 3D environment. The result of this study shows the procedure and criteria for content design with the aid of virtual reality for the study of art and design. In addition, this study examines aspects of how virtual reality helps in terms of designing the teaching strategy.

Paper ID: 44

Sit-stand transfer difficulty among Indian elderly: design gaps in related assistive technologies

Charu Maurya (Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati) and Amrendra Kumar Das (Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati)

Abstract: Sit To Stand (STS) transfer is one of the most common difficulties faced by the elderly. The present paper aims at identifying the STS transfer difficulty among Indian elderly and also focuses on the need for an appropriate STS transfer aid. The study was undertaken in 2018 on 200 elderly respondents having difficulty in STS movement. Self-structured questionnaire and other scales viz. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) were applied to assess the needs and problems of Indian elderly in STS tasks. The results show that among all the respondents a large number of females in the age group of 60-70 years had STS transfer difficulty. High Body Mass Index (63.5%), Osteoarthritis (69%) and Vegetarian diet (58%) was noted among respondents. The impaired ability of sit-stand transfer affected their capacity in carrying out important activities of daily living. The elderly also faced trouble in STS movement particularly in Western Toilet (WT) and Indian Toilets (IT). Walking stick users also found difficulty in STS tasks at many places. Thus, a need was identified to develop an assistive aid to help the elderly in STS transfer particularly in WT and IT, along with a modified walking stick, which could serve the dual purpose of mobility and STS transfer.

Paper ID: 45

Bio-Bricks: Circular economy and new products

Priyabrata Rautray (Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad), Avik Roy (Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology), Dr. Deepak John Mathew (Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad) and Dr. Boris Eisenbart (Swinburne University of Technology)

Abstract: Agricultural waste burning is a significant source of pollution in India, especially after the harvesting season. Bio-brick was developed as an alternative and sustainable building material that is made up of agricultural waste. And at the same time will also lead to the reduction of air pollution and create new jobs at the grassroots level. This research paper defines the relationship between Bio-Bricks and circular economy model and its benefits to the rural economy and society as a whole. It has both direct and indirect benefits such as reduction of air pollution and the potential to be reused at the EOL or as filler material. It also documents the process of initial testing and product development. Product iteration started with creating blocks of bio-bricks, followed by initial experiments to determine physical properties. These results led to the redevelopment of product in term of forms and functionalities. New iterations can also be used for industrial settings such as enclosure for machinery and equipment as a sandwich or reinforced boards. Manufacturing of Bio-Bricks has the potential to eliminate the problem of disposal of agricultural waste at source. It can create a new economic model for farmers and lead to the development of agriculture-based industries. Based on our research findings, we find Bio-bricks can be developed as a carbon-negative, sustainable and economically viable material for construction. With the right kind of product development and incentives, it can diversify into numerous products satisfying the needs of an ecologically sensitive future.

Paper ID: 46

Understanding and finding issues related to root-canal treatment procedure from a design perspective

Priyabrata Rautray (Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad), Dr. Vikas Sahu (AIDIA Health Private Limited), Nibedit Dey (AIDIA Health Private Limited) and Dr. Deepak John Mathew (Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad)

Abstract: Root Canal Treatment (RCT) is one of the standard dental procedure commonly done by dentist throughout the world. It involves removing infected pulp tissue from the tooth's pulp chamber and canals, cleaning and shaping of the root canals, disinfection of the hollow canal and filling it with \"gutta-percha\" or root canal sealer. Nonetheless, it is found that many of the RCT procedures fail due to inadequacies like missing of root canal orifices, improper cleaning or difficulties in locating the orifice. In most of the case, the failure of the treatment leads to persistent pain and secondary infection, which ultimately force the patient to undergo a subsequent RCT or extraction. Several clinical immersion sessions were conducted at MNR Dental College and Hospital and Malla Reddy Institute of Dental Sciences to understand the issues and problem-related to this root canal treatment. They were followed by an online questionnaire survey to gather a broader perspective of medical practitioners. After a year-long study, we were able to identify a few areas where design intervention can lead to the overall improvement of the root canal treatment and also can improve the workflow and comfort of the dentist. This research paper documents and highlights the research to find an unmet clinical need. This research project, though in its nascent stage, has shown great potential and with further research and development can lead to the development of a medical device that helps to improve the efficiency of the root canal treatment.

Paper ID: 48

India Post Services – A Speculative Service Design for behaviour change

Shivani Ganwani (Tata Consultancy Services), Radhika Verma (Tata Consultancy Services), Ravi Mahamuni (Tata Consultancy Services) and Varnika Naik (Tata Consultancy Services)

Abstract: Service Design has proved its potential in creating effective and innovative solutions, desirable by users as well as service provider organizations. Service Design which follows holistic and human-centred approach, exhibits an enormous scope to address complex, large scale problems like designing citizen services that are experiential, efficient and effective. Citizen services involve complexity due to the diverse user base and their varying needs; rapid technological advancements and increasing demands of users. The involvement of multiple stakeholders, socio-political and environmental changes across the globe make it more complicated. In order to explore the effectiveness of the service design approach, methods and tools for citizen services, we undertook a speculative case study of Indian Postal services.
The study was broadly divided into research, analysis, ideation and conceptualization stages. A mix of quantitative and qualitative methods was used for user research, and derived insights were taken forward through ideation workshops using tools provided by CraftChange-service design for behaviour change framework. Ideas were clustered to create a service ecosystem comprising of peripheral as well as core services for India Post. This study emphasizes on adopting differentiating practices, tools and methods while designing citizen services, to achieve greater adoption and sustained usage of the services. Service design for behaviour change approach towards citizen services seems to be promising to have more holistic, valuable and sustainable services for the users, service providers, associated organizations and the society and environment.

Paper ID: 49

Agro-Based RC Aircraft

Kiran Kumar Tumbagi (Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering) and Nishanth Pradyumna (Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering)

Abstract: The paper presents an agricultural-based fixed-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) which is capable of spraying chemicals (pesticide/fertilizer). Aerial pollination, aerial sowing of seeds and similar tasks can be accomplished by effortless swapping of the payload. It makes these agricultural tasks simple, cost-effective and time-efficient. UAV reduces contact with pesticide during spraying and also eliminates the use of manned aircraft. Thus increases the safety of humans by preventing the ill effects of chemicals (pesticides) and fatal accidents of manned aircraft. Paper emphasizes the importance of UAV in the agricultural sector to ensure human safety and to increase the efficiency of farming. It incorporates aircraft design, specifications, performance, flight envelope, flow analysis, structural analysis, and its ability to accommodate sufficient payload for the purpose. It also encapsulates the cost breakdown to analyze its affordability and cost-effectiveness.

Paper ID: 52

Sustainable Design and development of Stubble removing agricultural machine for stopping the burning of paddy stubble

Harmanpreet Singh (Indian Institute of Technology Ropar), Prabir Sarkar (Indian Institute of Technology Ropar), Harpreet Singh (Indian Institute of Technology Ropar) and Fateh Singh (Indian Institute of Technology Ropar)

Abstract: India is an emerging economy and has shown the great increase in the production of crops particularly after green revolution. New kinds of seeds, fertilizers, machinery and sowing techniques have helped a lot in meeting the needs of a country in terms of grains per hectare. Due to rapid development, there is an increase in overall pollution giving rise to greenhouse gases, ultimately depleting the ozone layer along with the rise in seawater level causing various problems ahead. Air pollution is particularly increasing various Respiratory diseases even in small children, which is the major concern for society. To reduce the ounce of this ever-increasing pollution the Stubble Removing Machine (SRM) is designed and developed for fully controlling the pollution due to burning of paddy stubble. Earlier the only method to clear the agriculture land was to burn the paddy stubble after the harvesting, due to which a lot of harmful gases like COx and NOx and their derivatives are at peak of their production.
Various other machines were developed including Stubble Management System (SMS) and its higher version called super SMS, but were not so promising according to their application procedure. The present developed machine works on the principle of cutting, collecting and managing the paddy stubble and clears the fields instantaneously for the next crop, also vanishing the problem of pollution due to burning of stubble.

Paper ID: 54

The Infinity Process: A Design Framework for Interdisciplinary Problem-Solving

Sree Mahit Munakala (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati), Chetan Manda (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati) and Sharmistha Banerjee (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati)

Abstract: Designers are posed with problems which typically require an approach involving knowledge and expertise sourced from multiple disciplines. This leads to a breakdown of boundaries surrounding these disciplines, posing unique challenges in working towards a common goal. The design community often relies on specific predefined design processes to tackle complex, open-ended problems. They help designers convert ambiguous problem areas into concise pain points that facilitate targeted problem-solving. The design processes currently used are either problem-oriented or solution-oriented, whereas a hybrid structure is required to accurately reflect a designer’s approach to solving a problem. Further, considering the complex nature of interdisciplinary design and the ever growing need to consider multiple disciplines, allowing room for integrating the nuances that come with interdisciplinary design is important.
We took up a real-life interdisciplinary project where we worked on tackling problems for the hearing-impaired community. The problem-solving approach involved expertise from multiple disciplines at every stage of the project, including computer science, medical research, speech pathology, psychology and design. We observed an overarching framework when interacting with experts from different disciplines. This framework was further modified and refined across the different stages of the project. Documenting the insights from this project, we propose the Infinity Process, a framework that can be applied while working in interdisciplinary product teams.
The Infinity Process is a framework that takes into account the facets of research, design, development and testing while also addressing the gap of need validation and iteration, which typically occurs during a product development cycle. This paper starts by describing the primary approach to problem-solving involving an outcome. We then break down and redefine the design process into four distinct phases. The first phase redefines the framework to cater to a value generation-oriented outcome. The second phase focuses on defining the need behind the problem and validating the pain points associated with the need. The third phase focuses on the building the final solution, where design, development and testing teams are sequentially incorporated. The final phase explains how the entire framework works cyclically, wherein the need is redefined depending on the feedback received from the other disciplines involved. Each phase focuses on one aspect of product development. Designers are encouraged to apply the four frameworks starting from any phase, thereby eliminating rigidity of the process. Designers may also use each phase of the framework independently, depending on their respective stage of product development.

Paper ID: 55

Visual features of ethnic handloom products for retention of the unique traditional signatures along with detection of authenticity

Chirapriya Mondal (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Guwahati) and Sougata Karmakar (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Guwahati)

Abstract: Indian handlooms are rich in their traditional styles and popular across the world. Each handloom technique has its unique ethnic features. However, the ethnic features are constantly undergoing change due to acculturation, innovation and various other factors, which can signifi-cantly affect the authenticity of the products, and thereby consumers’ purchase intention. The present research was carried out to identify the ethnic features and judging the authenticity of handloom products from handloom clusters of Assam through visual analysis. A Mixed-methodology was adopted by incorporating a critical review of litera-ture, in-depth ethnographic study, and photographic documentation. Images of handloom products were collected from ethnic clusters of Assam, namely Sualkuchi, Bijoynagar, Chaygaon, and Boko. Semiotic analysis of the collected 27 images (stimuli) was performed by expert designers (n= 20) to achieve the goal of the current research. The out-come of this study was a detailed matrix of smallest elements and their arrangement that form the syntactic analysis. Details in terms of influ-ence or source of inspiration were studied in syntagmatic analysis. It was found that the motifs were traditionally inspired by naturally available flora and fauna, culturally significant elements, and mytho-logical characters. Presented analysis technique can be referred by de-sign practitioners, artisans, and researchers to identify ethnic features of handloom products based on traditional signatures during their de-sign ideation. Identified visual design features would facilitate the re-tention of traditional inspiration during the process of product devel-opment and diversification.

Paper ID: 56

On how to add SALT: PLAYGORA - A real world case study and experimentation

Robert E. Wendrich (University of Twente)

Abstract: This contribution presents a real world case study and experimentation based on the Serendipity, Ambiguity, Laterality, and Tangibility (SALT) conceptual architecture. We present early-stage design engineering processes (DEP) coupled with assisted human-machine creativity and directed towards research out-of-the-lab in which we engaged public participation during a nine-day public design event in The Netherlands. The study and experiment(s) were executed and conducted (i.e. early-stage research) with hybrid design tools (HDTs) and -environments (HDTEs) support systems. All the interaction data was acquired and mined with various observation and capture technologies and stored real-time on a data repository. A feedback loop (real-time) was made available to participants synthesized from user generated content and data. The design task to be executed voluntarily by heterogeneous users, was to create user generated content by expression through narrative of experiences (e.g. associative reasoning), audiovisual representations (e.g. designing, engineering) based on a prescribed context, externalization of opinion and address meaning. People were free to interpret, take position and/or add perspective individually and/or collaboratively, while immersing themselves in storytelling, audification, and visualization strategies. Building stories iteratively through narrative and representations is like building bridges between different worlds to create understanding, foster awareness, changing scope and enhance insights into the world-around-you. The challenge now is to rethink completely the processes according to the available technologies proposing new design models, iterative-layered processes and/or architectures that can leverage the digital continuity in both physical- (PPD), virtual- (VPD) and hybrid product* development (HPD). Whatever meaning or intention one may have, in essence and in general, people ‘shape and design’ their own lives and ‘form’ their own perspectives on life. Individualized design combined with collaborative dynamic activity (e.g. discussion, narration, negotiation) in conjunction with hybrid design tools, have the capacity to act as the missing link between humans, society, and technology (STS) thereby addressing the fundamental core issues (e.g. regional, national, international) and global challenges at hand. The PLAYGORA design environment entails innovative interactive software solutions and design tools to create meaningful communication, experiences, personal involvement and social inclusion within various contexts and/or domains. People cannot feel data, however, by tangibly taking advantage of touch (a simple emotional phenomenon), add ambiguity in visual stimuli, we aim to stimulate the lateral thinking capacity and capability in people (i.e. users) possibly leading to serendipitious events and novel and/or alternatives in ‘design’ outcome.
*Product could be artefacts, systems and/or services.

Paper ID: 58

Understanding the dynamics of emotions during the Design process

Mritunjay Kumar (Indian Institute of Technology kanpur), Satyaki Roy (Indian Institute of Technology kanpur), Braj Bhushan (Indian Institute of Technology kanpur), Ahmed Sameer (Indian Institute of Technology Dhanbad), Swati Mittal (Indian Institute of Technology kanpur) and Bharat Sarkar (One Plus India)

Abstract: Research on emotion and design literature has relied primarily on the product
generated by the designers and the emotional experience felt by the users while using the product. A limited number of studies have addressed the dynamics of the designer's emotions during the design process. This exploratory study attempts to understand the emotional experience of designers during the design process with supporting empirical evidence. Twenty-five designers were asked to carry out a design task for a limited period of time. The data was analyzed using the FBS ontology framework, linkography, and PANAS ratings to establish the dynamics of the emotions during the design process based on the video and audio recordings of the task. This study demonstrates mostly positive affect throughout the design process with associated high entropy scores and high outcomes, where the affective states varied between different time intervals and at different phases of the design process.

Paper ID: 60

Visual Alankars: Towards a decolonised Visual Design Framework

Raina Singh (Department of Design, School of Planning and Architecture, Bhopal) and Saurabh Tewari (Department of Design, School of Planning and Architecture, Bhopal)

Abstract: The graphic design education in many postcolonial geographies, including India, is heavily inclined towards the Bauhausian and Swiss schools of thought with a philosophical rootedness in the western worldview. The contemporary discourse of design pedagogy, there have been only a handful of attempts, like Asian Design paradigm, to explore alternative frameworks and understand the visual design-culture through the decolonial lens. The research aims to experiment and evolve the fundamentals of visual design borrowed from the literary principles from indigenous knowledge systems. In the scope of the study, Alankars, a crucial literary aspect of Hindi Vyakaran (Hindi grammar system) are explored and employed to create a new decolonised visual design framework.
Alankar, or grammatical ornaments, enriches a literary composition through either playful structure or enhanced meaning. The study explores the two meta-alankar types, Shabd (word) and Arth (meaning), which conceptually relates to syntax and semantics, and experiment through a variety of new compositions. The pragmatics of the new compositions employ a folk-art tradition form from northern India, Madhubani. The compositions using the visual elements and styles of Madhubani attempts to replicate the structures in Shabd Alankar and meanings in Artha Alankar. Further, the sub-types of Alankar, including Anupras, Yamak, Slesh, Upma, Rupak, Utpreksha, Atishyokti and Manvikaran along with their idiomatic examples, are transliterated into visual compositions. To work further, a motif library assists the exploration in providing a variety of options.
This study attempted to construct a visual grammar / visual compositions framework through consciously working on syntax, semantics and pragmatics of visual design. The first two components, syntax and semantics, were explored as Alankars while latter, pragmatics, was employed to assist comprehension of composition through contextual understanding, here Madhubani. The pragmatics further allows exploring the subjectivity through the details in the artwork, reminiscent of the artistic freedom in the Madhubani and other Indian art traditions. The research highlights the potential of indigenous knowledge to offer a methodological lens for visual design. This indigenous knowledge exploration can be instrumental in bridging the gap that exists in learning design and its principles in our cultural context and environment.

Paper ID: 61

Typeface design for cultural identity – An exploration with Assamese typeface design and its future scope

Abhijit Padun (Central Institute of Technology Kokrajhar, Assam) and Prof. Amarendra Kumar Das (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam)

Abstract: The identity of culture also comes from its language. India, which is known for its diversity in culture, each language that exists establishes a cultural identity. In this paper, an exploration conducted on reviving the identity of the Assamese script which represents Assamese language and culture of North-East India has been described. The exploration outlines initially the need, the resources, the applicability, and the design considerations. Then further it proposes a design alternative of the Assamese script in the form of a Typeface which may address the need to bring back the original essence of the script that was present in its historical form. The very idea of this exercise is to establish an identity for Assamese culture and language in the digital platform with the help of its script, which could be represented by a new Typeface that addresses the originality and tradition with historical essence.

Paper ID: 67

Design on Contemporary Products

Supriya Ugale (MIT Institute of Design, MIT ADT University, Pune) and Nachiket Thakur (MIT Institute of Design, MIT ADT University, Pune). Impact of Indian Culture-oriented Color, Material and Finish (CMF)

Abstract: Aesthetic appeal and cultural meaning of product are two key aspects which are becoming very popular in consumers and which are highly influencing consumer’s buying decisions in today’s competitive market. Color, Material and Finish (CMF) Design works around aesthetic values and cultural connections which are based on emotional values. Cultural CMF elements are considered to be a unique character to embed into a product for the enhancement of product identity in the global market and for the fulfillment of the individual consumer’s experiences. The intent of this paper is to study the impact of Indian culture-oriented CMF design on contemporary product’s aesthetic and semantic attributes. The research work has been carried out in two stages. Firstly, visual audit conducted to understand the impact of Indian culture-oriented CMF design on visual identity of product by re-visiting past and current trends. Secondly, effort has been made to find out differences in the visual product perception of the designers and users by using Semantic Differential (SD) tests. One-way ANOVA test carried out to analyze the results achieved from SD test. The result shows that Indian culture-oriented CMF design creates a significant impact on contemporary product aesthetic and semantic values. If contemporary product aesthetics is designed considering Indian users’ perception and their needs then products will have enhanced semantic values and products will become more meaningful for users. Indian traditional CMF elements will help to create product identity in the global market.

Paper ID: 69


Abhijit Kakati (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati) and Amarendra Kumar Das (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati)

Abstract: Practices in conducting eye screening camps in rural underserved areas seem to have not changed lately. Majority of the settings organizing eye screening camps, lack the necessary facilities and do not meet the general medical standards. Adverse terrain conditions also do not allow for medical mobile unit vans to be an option in such areas. Such factors result in the exclusion of a significant portion of the population, who are at risk of developing ocular abnormalities due to diabetes and other farm-related injuries.
Field studies conducted in eye camps of rural Assam and subsequent interviews with healthcare providers and recipients established the novelty of the information. Considering these constraints as an opportunity, the author engaged the healthcare experts for mining a context-specific design from the perspective of the specialists. The information collected through ethnographic narratives, focus group discussions, interviews, and field studies were shared with a team of healthcare experts. The healthcare team by means of a design workshop, tried to address user needs in their concept design.
This research examines the role of association of designers with the healthcare professionals in bringing about solution-oriented design services and systems, meeting the specific needs of the indigenous people as well as the healthcare facilitators. The paper aims to reflect the ver-satility of design education in addressing socially significant problems, intending to direct it towards the unmet healthcare needs in low-resource settings. Such context-specific interventions can open the win-dow to valuable insights into the position of design education in other professional domains.

Paper ID: 71

Scope of Improvement in Assembly-line of FMCG Industries through Ergonomic Design

Gurdeep Singh (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Guwahati) and Sougata Karmakar (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Guwahati)

Abstract: In the industry 4.0 era, the assembly-line work forms the basis of various manu-facturing industries viz. the automotive, the electronic component manufacturing, and the Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG). FMCG assembly lines are dis-tinct from the automotive and the electronic component manufacturing assembly lines. These are high paced, and semi-automatic in nature and comprises short-cycled repetitive work. The researchers and engineers have taken several different approaches to improve the assembly-line related work in automotive and electron-ic component manufacturing industries, from a design and ergonomics perspec-tive. However, very little is known about such design and ergonomic interven-tions pertaining to FMCG assembly-lines. This paper aims to find out to what ex-tent the same/ similar approaches associated with ergonomic design interventions applied in assembly-line work in diverse industrial sectors can be adopted/ ap-plied to the FMCG sector to improve productivity and OSH following the state-of-art literature review. Hence, the current paper assesses the need and determines the scope of ‘Ergonomic Design Interventions’ in assembly-line-related work in the FMCG sector. In this paper, authors have emphasized and advocated imple-menting ergonomic principles in assembly-line work of the FMCG sector in con-junction with productivity enhancement tools/ techniques to ensure enhanced OSH and productivity.

Paper ID: 73

Creation of Value in Ecosystems – A Perspective from Design Innovation

Nikhil Zope (Tata Consultancy Services)

Abstract: With design becoming more and more explicitly recognized and used as part of the innovation in businesses, design innovation as a discipline is also maturing. Design innovation is helping recognizing value creation explicitly in all stages of innovation. Innovation itself is moving from offering innovation to experience innovation and from a single business firm driven to ecosystems driven. In this paper, we review literature from design innovation discipline and business ecosystems discipline. From the literature review we establish that design innovation needs to go beyond offering innovation and address value creation within multiple firms from the ecosystem perspective. We also discuss business models of ecosystem participants and their influence on each other as first step in this research direction.

Paper ID: 75

Developing the P.O.L.E Framework for User Subjective Experience

Chaitanya Solanki (Indian institute of technology Hyderabad)

Abstract: Thomas Nagel in his paper, „What is it like to be a bat?‟ highlights the problem of subjective experience. He talks about the problem of subjectivity, of how an observer, if not a bat, can never fully understand what it is like to be a bat. This paper takes on the above problem and attempts to utilize it to theoretically deduce that the problem of user subjectivity can be logically dismantled and the information gained can help in the domain of design processes. The P.O.L.E framework tries to utilize the social and biological aspect of the user‟s subjectivity and attempts to break it down by engaging in the pre-design stage of task-clarification. It aims at providing a more holistic perception of the user, by piecing together the various influences that might affect an individual‟s subjectivity. The proposed framework is in its adolescence but shows the potential to establish a base of information before the design process takes place. The research concludes with tentative future plans of how this framework will be further deployed and tested.

Paper ID: 76

Understanding and evaluating the needs of a respiratory assessment device for community health

Nibedit Dey (ibrum technologies) and Priyabrata Rautray (Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad)

Abstract: In public health settings, most of the patients with respiratory-related complaints come with chronic conditions, where the disease has already progressed to an advanced stage that requires immediate care. As per the Global Asthma Report (2018), more than one billion patients suffer from Chronic Respiratory Diseases (CRD). Pneumonia is considered the single largest cause of mortality in children worldwide with over 2 million deaths worldwide. Factors such as malnourishment, low zinc intake, overcrowding, exposure to parental smoking, indoor air pollution play an important role in increasing children’s susceptibility to respiratory infections. Due to the lack of pulmonologists in primary care centers and lack of time, patients remain undiagnosed which leads to a rise in the number of chronic disease cases. The problem is worse for babies suffering from pneumonia where any delayed diagnosis can be fatal. In a crowded and noisy atmosphere, it is extremely difficult to hear the sound of congested lungs through a normal stethoscope. Research says that even with a specialist doctor, physical diagnosis sensitivity is between 47-69% and specificity is between 58-75%.To improve our understanding of the screening process and gather clinicians’ perspectives on the need for a respiratory health assessment device, a number of face to face interviews were conducted, followed by an online questionnaire survey. We also documented the existing diagnosis methods and tests prescribed by clinicians to detect pneumonia. Children can be protected from pneumonia with a simple respiratory health assessment device and can be treated with low-cost medication and care. This research paper documents and highlights the need for a respiratory health assessment device. The research paper is divided into three segments; firstly it highlights the existing diagnosis methods for respiratory disease and issues related to it, secondly, recording and analysis of clinicians’ perspectives and challenges. Finally, conceptualizing a novel solution to assist clinicians in the diagnosis of respiratory diseases.

Paper ID: 77

Introduction To Self-Help Books/Texts For Design Students

Shefali Yadav (Pandit Lakhmi Chand State University of Performing & Visual Arts, Rohtak)

Abstract: Time spent at college is a happy experience and a fond memory for most of the students but for some it has many rough patches. Everyone's situation is unique, but there are a few problems that almost all college students deal with at least once during the time they spend in college. 72% of students in India are unaware of how to deal with stress and its ill-effects as studied by Dr. S.G. George. A study by NIMHANS has also found that 11% of college students have attempted suicide because of stress.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the kind of stress design students go through and how taking help from a self-help books/texts can guide students to deal with the feelings, thoughts or behavior that come with stress and anxiety and can act as bibliotherapy for them. Self-help books take insights from psychological science and draw in particular on the newly developing ‘positive psychology’. There is evidence that bibliotherapy is effective in the treatment of psychological disorders.
To know how self-help books can help the design students, eight in-depth interviews with the current and former design students were taken who have experienced the stress and triumphed over that with the help of self-help books. A survey amongst the students was conducted to know about the stress they go through and how they deal with it, what they most need at that moment and their awareness about self-help books.

Paper ID: 79

Context of Design Innovation: Development of Practice Support in accordance with Design Research Methodology for enabling Creation of Value

Doji Lokku (Tata Consultancy Services) and Dr. Deepak John Mathew (Indian Institute of Technology)

Abstract: Introduction: The context of design innovation refers to harnessing human creativity for creation of value. With innovation pointing to transforming the ideas for success in the market place, it is considered a reasonable expectation for creativity based design practice to enable this particular transformation. The review of design innovation literature suggests that the practice ought to be explicit with regard to creation of value. As of now, the notion of value and creation of value is implicitly present in the current state-of-art of design practice. Hence there exists a necessity to improve upon the current design practice, in order for it to exclusively address ‘creation of value’. The proposed paper looks at this scope and presents the undertaken work as development of practice support.
Core Idea: The literature on business models refers to the rationale behind creation of value, which can be adapted into design practice. There are several perspectives on business models by various authors of which Business Model Canvas is most popular. Further the elements of this Canvas are grouped into a set of building blocks for ‘creation of value’ by other authors. Thereby these elements lend a handle to systematically address ‘creation of value’ through design practice. The development of Practice Support makes use of these building blocks and introduce the resulting approach as part of standard design phases, in order to address ‘creation of value’ explicitly.
Proposed Contribution: Accordingly the proposed paper describes the various perspectives on ‘creation of value’ from business models literature. The review of literature on design innovation is included in the paper. The overall understanding from review is leveraged to develop the practice support for design, through an empirical study. The stages in Design Research Methodology are adhered with, while developing this support. The Research Clarification stage refers to literature review in the area of design innovation to highlight the gap in the state-of-art of design practice to address ‘creation of value’. The Descriptive Study-I captures the literature review on business models in an attempt to describe the various perspectives on ‘creation of value’. The resulting understanding lends a handle towards developing the practice support. The subsequent Prescriptive Study involves a detailed empirical study towards developing the practice support for enabling ‘creation of value’ through design. Lastly, the Descriptive Study-II validates the developed practice support with reference to the context of startups, as these firms have an agenda for ‘creation of value’ aimed at certain intended stakeholders. This validation exercise involves applying standard design phases for a given startup firm context, towards its preparedness for translating its own value proposition to value realization. Thereby this exercise give rise to startup case studies in an attempt to demonstrate and illustrate the usage of the developed practice support.
Towards future work, the proposed paper refers to usage of business model patterns for detailed designing of business ecosystems. The developed practice support can be further strengthened with insights from the above extended context.

Paper ID: 83

Influence of Culture and Tradition in the Tribal Architecture of Meghalaya

Srinidhi Ravishankar (Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad) and Shiva Ji (Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad)

Abstract: Northeast India is dotted with several tribes and tribal communities. In a tribal context, art, architecture, and culture are intertwined into the day-to-day activities. Although most vernacular structures in the Northeast use similar locally available materials like bamboo, wood, mud, thatch, etc., they are different from each other. This factor of identity stems from their diverse cultural practices and beliefs. To explore the relationship between culture, art and architecture in Northeast India, taking the case example of Meghalaya. The paper further investigates the scenario by analyzing the two most important housing typologies of Meghalaya - Garo and Khasi houses. The paper investigates the relationship between culture, art and architecture by exploring different sub-factors of local and external influences such as traditional values, symbolism, mythology and belief system of the communities and their contributions to the development of the tribal architecture of Meghalaya. The intensity of the influence is carefully analyzed in the various building components of a habitat structure. The research synthesis is conducted to draw conclusions of how the traditional architecture of Meghalaya is influenced and enhanced by a mix of local and externally influenced belief systems, culture and art. This has led to various derivatives of elemental representations, motifs, patterns and semiotics in architecture. The traditional beliefs of tribes have shaped their settlement patterns and their housing structures. The aesthetics of the houses can be seen as a result of their mythology-based symbolism. Interestingly, the beliefs and taboos of the groups in construction have proven to have positive seismic, environmental and sustainable outcomes. All these characteristics, driven from culture and traditions, can be considered as the key reasons for their earthquake and weather-resistant characteristics. Culture, art, symbolism and the belief system has largely influenced the tribal architecture in terms of planning, aesthetics and semiotics, making them unique, localized and indigenous. However, their influence is gradually diminishing because of standardization and contemporary practices. It is commendable that though there is an increased usage of metal and modern construction materials in the form of metal roofs, bolts, and brick walls, the underlying values and interior planning remains the same.

Paper ID: 84

Mindmaps - A tool for planning and structuring design research papers

Mashahib Nawaz Hassan (IIT Guwahati) and Sharmistha Banerjee (IIT Guwahati)

Abstract: Research papers are a tremendous source of cutting edge knowledge. Writing a good research paper requires proper planning and structuring of paper which often comes from experience. Planning and structuring the research paper is a tedious task for novice researchers due to the lack of a process that could assist novice researchers to plan and structure their paper. To understand the mindset and problems faced by novice design researchers we conducted workshops on writing research paper based on a generic framework. Workshops provided us with helpful insights about how and what novice researchers think while writing research papers. We came up with a concept of using mindmaps that allows novice researchers to plan and structure the content of the research paper before writing the paper. It was observed that it reduced stress and anxiety about the contents of paper while writing it and researchers could focus more on the language of the paper while writing it that will directly increase the quality of paper in terms of its language and narration.

Paper ID: 86

Design for X: An Iterative Approach for Design Optimization in Pre Engineered and Pre-Cast Construction

Arun Sekhar (Indian Institute of Technology Delhi) and Uma Maheswari (Indian Institute of Technology Delhi)

Abstract: Inadequate planning and poor stake holder management are considered root cause to delays and cost overruns in Construction Projects. Compartmentalized working of various stakeholders prevents smooth flow of information to achieve intended Design-Construction Interface. The construction industry is gradually evolving to a manufacturing and product delivery process where design for Manufacturability and Assembly takes precedence. Pre Engineered and Pre Cast Construction technology is being adopted in many large span and high rise building projects due to its cost effectiveness in large volume. Optimization of targeted values viz manufacturability, assembly, maintenance, lifecycle cost and ergonomics becomes critical to ensure a smooth execution of the Project. Design for a specific target value according to the utility has been an evolutionary process. The objective of the study is to look into the relevance and effectiveness of an iterative approach in Design Process to streamline the Target Values to optimize effort and resources in employing Pre Engineered and Pre-Cast Technology. The study also examines the various factors influencing the smooth interface from design to construction and critically examine the bottlenecks. Design for X (DfX) approach gives the stakeholders more rationale inputs for monitoring and decision making in a more controlled environment of pre-engineered and pre-cast construction. A well-conceived work breakdown structure is mandatory for an assembly based construction methodology as skilled labour with right machinery plays a key role in sticking to the planned schedule. The Design-Build type of contract suits an innovative technology where guidelines are still in a formative stage. The study attempts to predict the future of manufacturability in construction where smooth assembly with minimum labour is getting preference over conventional cast-in-situ methodology. The bottom up approach of new policy initiatives and better communication between stakeholders promise more refined designs in future where technology will be pushed to align with Lean Construction principles which will form part of deliverables.

Paper ID: 87

Investigation of preferences in idea evaluation depending on disciplinary backgrounds based on a newly developed questionnaire

Yuki Taoka (Tokyo Institute of Technology), Yuya Suka (Tokyo Institute of Technology), Yoshifumi Nishida (Tokyo Institute of Technology) and Shigeki Saito (Tokyo Institute of Technology)

Abstract: In highly competitive markets, companies have to develop innovative products or services through design projects. In such a product development in companies, it is crucial to have teams consisting of people from diversified backgrounds so that the teams develop innovative products. However, an increasing degree of diversity in a team does not directly link to a higher quality, namely creativity, of project outcomes. Diversity in a team can hinder the design process due to a decrease in common understandings and shared experiences.
Many scholars have attempted to define creativity. A common understanding of creativity is that a creative design outcome has ‘novelty’ and ‘usefulness’. As novelty refers to newness to the human race, we define a novelty is a degree to which an idea is rare, unusual, or uncommon. ‘Usefulness’ refers to ‘social value’, defined as the degree to which an idea applies to the problem at hand, effective and implementable, as a way to address ‘usefulness’ of design outcome. Usefulness can be divided into usefulness to users and feasibility.
Our goal is to support ideation activities by groups of people having multi-disciplinary backgrounds, especially engineering and arts. We hypothesise that there is a tendency that people prefer one aspect of ideas depending on the discipline of participants, which hinder group design activities. Increasing awareness of self-preference may help teams to conduct design activities. This paper focuses on the development of a questionnaire and clarify differences in preference between arts and engineering.
The questionnaire has pairs of ideas, each of which has an idea having a higher degree of feasibility but a lower degree of novelty (feasible idea) and the other idea has vice-versa (novel idea). Participants are asked to choose one good idea from each pair.
To develop the questionnaire, the authors firstly created eighty-four ideas. Each idea has an illustration and a brief explanation in texts. The ideas were evaluated by forty students with seven points Licker scale in terms of novelty and feasibility. The participants consist of twenty students majoring engineering and twenty studying arts
Each idea was shown with a description of target users and a design challenge towards for which the idea was created. Prior to the evaluation, the participants read brief definitions and examples of novelty and feasibility.
The responses were statistically analysed to find pairs, each of which has one idea of having significantly high feasibility compared to the other idea and the other having significantly high novelty compared to feasible ideas.
The developed questionnaire consists of seven pairs of ideas. The questionnaire was responded by both twenty students studying in engineering and twenty students studying in arts. As each pair has a significantly feasible idea and a significantly novel idea, the participants are forced to choose either feasible or novel ideas. Therefore, the number of feasible ideas and novel ideas chosen as good ideas by each participant reflect preferences of an aspect of creativity of ideas. The number was statistically analysed to explore differences between people studying engineering and arts.

Paper ID: 89

Development of a novel biodynamic model of the seated occupants

Veeresalingam Guruguntla (National Institute of Technology Rourkela) and Mohit Lal (National Institute of Technology Rourkela)

Abstract: Since the beginning of the machine age, vibration has become a significant part of a human being at the workplace. In general, the operators of the vehicle/machine exposes to vibration due to supporting surface, operating tools directly or indirectly in their daily life activities. These prolonged vibrations affect the human nervous system, digestive system, muscles function, upper and lower limb disorder etc. Head is the most crucial part of the human body. Hence, the study of vibration transmissibility between the source (seat surface, seat–buttock interface for seated occupants and foot for standing person) to head under dynamic conditions is an essential consideration in biodynamic modelling. To study the biodynamic response of the human beings under a wide range of vibration environments mostly researchers have performed experimental work, and minimal edition of mathematical models are present. However, remarkably few mathematical models mimic the structure of the real human being. In this article, a novel 10-degrees of freedom (dofs) human model which simulates the actual human structure is proposed. The spring and damper coefficients represent stiffness and damping of the human body (bone and muscle), respectively and are optimized through FireFly algorithm (FA). The conclusion is drawn based on the goodness of fit of experimental data presented in the literature with the tuned parameters of the human body obtained from FA. The performance of the developed human model is better than those reported in the literature. The evolved human model helps to monitor the whole body vibration occurred seated occupants.

Paper ID: 92

Urge for human-centered design intervention for harvesting of aquatic food crops

Jitesh Singh Chauhan (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Guwahati) and Sougata Karmakar (Department of Design, Indian institute of Technology (IIT) Guwahati)

Abstract: Aquatic food crops which have significant economic importance due to their nutritional value are presently being cultivated globally. Farmers in developing countries still follow the traditional cultivation practices for these crops. Aquatic cultivation is entirely different from terrestrial culti-vation in terms of the physical environment, field condition, and cultivation technique. Among different stages of agricultural operations for a particular crop, harvesting is considered to be the most time consuming and require utmost care to collect consumable part of the crop. The current study aims to understand future research avenues in aquatic food crop harvesting. The paper highlights medicinal/ nutritional value, challenges in harvesting, and existing scenarios of availa-ble tools and techniques used in the harvesting of aquatic as well as terrestrial crops. It will help to identify the future scope of research towards design intervention to reduce the drudgery of aquatic farmers and improvement of productivity of aquatic food crops. For this purpose, relevant literature was searched from the major three electronic databases, namely Web of Science, Sco-pus, and Google scholar. A prominent research gap was found regarding the design and devel-opment of aquatic food-crop harvester considering the key constraints of the aquatic environment. Hence, the attention of agricultural engineers/ designers, scientists, and researchers is of utmost necessity for designing and manufacturing innovative tools and techniques of aquatic crop grow-ers. The need of the hour is to strengthen the research and devolvement efforts in this overlooked domain for minimizing the sufferings of the underprivileged aquatic agricultural workers.

Paper ID: 95

Frugal-IDeM: An Integrated Methodology for Designing Frugal Innovations in Low-Resource Settings

Santosh Jagtap (Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden)

Abstract: People living in low-resource settings at the base of the world income pyramid (i.e. Base of the Pyramid — BOP) face several constraints. To satisfy their unmet needs, integrated frugal innovations are necessary. Several studies, dis-cussed using many names such as ‘design for Base of the Pyramid’, ‘design for development’, ‘product service systems’, ‘frugal innovations’, ‘humanitar-ian engineering’, ‘appropriate technology’, etc., have explored the design of such integrated frugal innovations for the BOP. Based on ten key design as-pects, gleaned from such studies, this paper aims at developing an Integrated Design Methodology for designing frugal innovations for the BOP (Frugal-IDeM). We have related the key design aspects with the various phases in the design and development process. The Frugal-IDeM also includes recommen-dations for how to implement the key design aspects.

Paper ID: 107

Enhancing creative learning methods by immersive virtual reality: A pilot study in classroom environment

Sumana Som (Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad), Deepak John Mathew (Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad), Sivanes Phillipson (Swinburne University of Technology) and Indranil Saha (Indian Institute of Technology)

Abstract: Technology is increasingly important in engaging millennials. Over the past few decades education pedagogy has struggled to develop new methods and tools to create better and higher quality education. In present schools need effective teaching and learning to convey and clarify the content of various subjects to students a first stage in their learning from primary stage of the students. With the help of virtual reality (VR) technology, teaching-learning can solve the restriction of space, time and act of learning. The VR technology also facilitate self-learning, problem-solving and help student to explore new ideas.
The subject of this research are sixth graders. Using VR environment, it is expected to develop a teaching-learning process of art and design topic. In traditional teaching of art and design at classroom, theoretical knowledge is more than hands-on learning and depth of learning process is insufficient. For instance, teacher describes the process or draw on the black-board and students are coping from books or doing imaginary drawing. This teaching procedure doesn’t have proper methodology and there is a chance to creates misconception of students. On this basis, VR technology-based art and design lesson is applied in the core curricula of art education in this study. Two sets of tests are conducted with sixth graders, one is pre and post-test with VR based lesson and other one is per and post-test with non-VR based lesson.
The result of this study found that the teaching outcome with VR and conventional teaching outcome has many significant difference. Applying VR technology in art and design teaching creates effective teaching environment where art and technology are combined, improved students theoretical knowledge, practical skill and help to improve quality teaching by optimizing teaching process. This study indicates two major points; one is how VR technology can be used as an art and design teaching tool. Other one is what are the significant changes are coming out in the students work by using VR environment based teaching.

Paper ID: 112

Research design for simplifying anthropometric data collection process using PCFA

Wibneh Amare (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Guwahati), Ashish Kumar Singh (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Guwahati) and Sougata Karmakar (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Guwahati)

Abstract: The current study is aiming at demonstrating how to reduce the numbers of variables using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to be measured in an anthropometry survey that involves sample data of large number of variables. A case study of analysis of anthropometric data involving PCA method has been reported based on the anthropometric data (32 anthropometric variables) of Ethiopian army personnel collected from 250 male participants. The linear regression models were also constructed using least square method to predict the regression equation of relevant body variables that had correlation coefficients (R) > 0.70. Variables having the lesser factors loading coefficient (&60#60%), commonality and correlation coefficients (&60#70%) were counted as independent variables and included in a minimum data set for measurement. The PCA provided six principal component factors. Total 21 regression equations of dependent variables were constructed from the six influential predictors. Therefore, we observed that the total 12 variables (six dominant variables, five variables with less commonality and/ or correlation coefficient from their respective predictors, and one targeted variable ‘mass’) can create a minimum data set that almost accounts for the variability produced by 32 original variables. Hence, during data collection, 12 independent anthropometric variables can extensively represent 32 variables. The current case study would help the researchers to save time and reduce their anthropometric survey to these 12 variables that can predict the remaining ones. It would also guide the researchers to adopt PCA to identify the representative anthropometric variables from large number of variables.

Paper ID: 113

A Three Phase Quality Function Deployment Approach for Conceptualizing a Sustainable Product Life Cycle: Case Study of a Blower Heater

Prashant Kumar Singh (Indian Institute of Technology Ropar) and Prabir Sarkar (Indian Institute of Technology Ropar)

Abstract: Purpose - The increasing awareness and demand for producing environmentally sustainable products has stimulated the industries across the globe to implement ecofriendly practices in the development of various products. It is important to consider the environmental impact while conceptualizing a product but at the same time the choices of end users should not be overlooked. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop an approach which has the capability to identify the key ecodesign practices as well as to consider the interests of the consumers while developing a sustainable product in the early design stage i.e., conceptual design stage.
Methodology/approach – In this study, an ecodesign based Quality Function Deployment (QFD) approach is proposed for developing the sustainable products. The QFD approach used in this study consists of three different phases. The first phase, known as ‘House of quality’, shows the relationship between the voice of customers and technical requirements of the product to be developed. A rating scale is used to develop the relationship between the customer requirements and technical requirements of the product. Then, the weight of each technical requirement is calculated. In second phase, the relationship of the technical requirements with different part characteristics of the product is established and weights are obtained for each part characteristic. Third phase relates the parts characteristics with various ecodesign practices spread across the entire life cycle of the product. Then, the key ecodesign practices are identified on the basis of their weights for developing a sustainable product life cycle.
Findings – The proposed methodology is applied for designing an environmentally conscious blower heater. The finding of this study shows that ‘Ensuring a higher durability,’ ‘Reducing energy consumption during use’ and ‘Ensuring easier maintenance and repair’ are the most significant ecodesign practices that must be emphasized while designing a blower heater.
Research implications/ limitations – The methodology developed in this research can assist the designers to develop ecofriendly products through the identification of the most relevant ecodesign practices for individual products. The main limitation of the proposed study is that it requires a team of designers to provide rating for each ecodesign practice. The ratings provided by a single designer may lead towards biased results.
Originality/value – Previous studies are not able to adopt a life cycle approach for developing products in conceptual design stage. The originality or novelty of this study lies in the fact that it helps the designers to plan the entire life cycle of the product in conceptual design stage of a product development process.

Paper ID: 115

An Attempt to Grasp Social Relationships by Facial Expression Electromyography Analysis

Quentin Ehkirch (University of Technology of Belfort-Montbéliard), Saya Kakiuchi (School of Design, Kyushu University), Yuki Motomura (Faculty of Design, Kyushu University), Susumu Matsumae (Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University) and Akane Matsumae (Faculty of Design, Kyushu University)

Abstract: This study served as an attempt to better understand social relationships by using Facial Expression Electromyography (fEMG) Analysis. The goal was to be able to visualize social relationships through objective data to broaden understanding of the mechanism of social relationships and social design. This study focuses more on observed daily experiences as a means of comprehending social relationships among the participants, and to determine if social relationships can be understood using fEMG Analysis.
The authors conducted an experiment that compares the results of fEMG analysis with social relationship transitions recorded during a card game called mini-bridge. This is a game played in teams, and it requires that players work in pairs. It can clearly be seen whether the pair is successful in this co-creative relationship by checking the data recorded on video, and by seeing what cards are in each player’s hand and how they play the game. During the game, the participants wore electrodes on their corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major, allowing us to collect data using fEMG (objective results). Using a shared behavior and intentions study from the videos, the intersubjective state of the examinees were graded (subjective results) and compare to the objective results interpreted through the Levenshtein method.
The research results suggest the possibility of identifying a social relationship as a partnership by using fEMG with data from the corrugator supercilii. This study will contribute to our knowledge of the mechanism of social relationships, which is needed to develop a methodology for social design.

Paper ID: 116

Assistive devices for one-handed people using desktop manufacturing methods

Khyati Priya (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati) and Pankaj Upadhyay (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati)

Abstract: Introduction: In this paper, we present the process, outcome and learning from a project for developing assistive products using desktop manufacturing methods (which includes additive manufacturing/3D printing, Laser cutting, CNC machining). The project focussed on people with disability leading to the restricted use of one hand, e.g. one-hand amputees, hemiplegics, and people with congenital anomalies. Six assistive devices were developed for the above user group which are as follows: Shoelace tying device, Lace tying device, Modified scale, Dupatta-pinning device, Button hook, and Toothbrush holder.
Methodology: The development of all the devices followed a typical user-centric design process which started with empathising with the users and conducting an interview with them, shortlisting areas for intervention, ideation and conceptualizing, iterative prototyping, testing with people who were asked to use only one limb while trying out the device, and finally receiving feedback from the intended users of the products.
Feedback and Results: Feedback on the devices was taken remotely. Three participants with disability in one upper limb were asked to rate each of the selected prototype on six different parameters such as the perceived ease of use, efficiency of problem solving, intuitive design, etc. on a Likert scale, and comment upon them.
Conclusion and Discussion: We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the inclusive design process we followed, the advantages of desktop manufacturing methods, and how they can be exploited in designing and production of customised assistive devices. Finally, we discuss the implications and future scope of the project.

Paper ID: 117

A visual analysis of motifs and patterns of Ghanasyam House Sivasagar, Assam, India

Saurav Khuttiya Deori (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati) and Utpal Barua (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati)

Abstract: The Ghanasyam House of Sivasagar district, Assam, India, is one of the detailed specimens in the ornamented brick architecture monument of the Ahom Dynasty. The monument is built during the reign of Ahom king Rudra Singha (CE 1696-1714), and it is protected under the Archaeological Survey of India, Guwahati circle, Assam(ASI). Multiple terracotta plaques are being used for the ornamentation that includes motifs, patterns, symbols, and sculptures. This paper aims to present a visual analysis of the motifs and patterns of the monument. The collected data of ornamentation are sorted considering a categorization theory. This paper investigates the visual composition analysis and symmetrical analysis of the ornamentation. The results provide detailed insight into the visual attributes of the motifs and patterns. The paper identifies the rudimentary principles compositions of the ornamentations within a specific frame of reference. The quantitative data analysis identifies the dominating motifs and pattern types and multiple symmetry operations.

Paper ID: 118

The influence of industry 4.0 on product design and development: Conceptual foundations and literature review

Sravan Tatipala (Blekinge Institute of Technology), Johan Wall (Blekinge Institute of Technology), Christian Johansson (Blekinge Institute of Technology) and Tobias Larsson (Blekinge Institute of Technology)

Abstract: Since its introduction in 2011, industry 4.0 has been coined the “4th industrial revolution” following mechanization, industrialization and IT/automation as the first three, and represents the current trend of automation technologies (cyber-physical systems, internet of things, cloud computing, etc.,) in the manufacturing industry, with their potential for disruption of the manufacturing paradigm as we know it. However, the effect and role of industry 4.0 on the design and development of the new products to be manufactured in industry 4.0 facilities is not clear. This research presents a literature review to; 1) understand the concept of industry 4.0 from an implementation (state of practice) viewpoint, 2) learn about approaches and considerations currently deployed for developing products to be produced in manufacturing plants progressively transforming into industry 4.0 environments. Results reveal that the potential of industry 4.0 is underexploited within product design and development, especially in the conceptual stages lacking methods, tools, and approaches. While later stages of the product development (production planning, ramp-up) have received some attention in regards with optimizing production operations, several publications acknowledge its potential to benefit earlier process stages.

Paper ID: 121

Decoding Nature Inspired Form Generation Processes

Shiv Kumar Verma (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati) and Ravi Mokashi Punekar (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati)

Abstract: Form giving/styling for nature-inspired designs is a creative problem-solving activity that involves a rigorous visual analysis of natural forms. In this paper, we attempt to understand the ‘designerly’ way of thinking for products that draw inspiration from nature. For our study, we examine the works of Owen Jones, Christopher Dresser, Arthur Heygate Mackmurdo, Luigi Colani, and Ross Lovegrove, who are internationally known for their biomorphic style of design. The study follows a qualitative research methodology of grounded theory to closely examine the research material drawn from published articles, interviews, and audio-visual material for analysis. Inferences and insights are drawn to suggest methods that may assist novice designers to reinvent their design methods and approaches.

Paper ID: 125

Design using Storytelling and Play to give Psychological Support to Children and Caregivers Battling Cancer and other Chronic Illness

Aditi Sit (Department of Industrial Design, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi), Aditi Singh (Department of Industrial Design, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi) and Parag Anand (Department of Industrial Design, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi)

Abstract: The news of a child being diagnosed with a chronic illness such as cancer, is of-ten unexpected and can seem devastating. Many families experience a sense of powerlessness in the beginning at the prospect of dealing with their child’s ill-ness. Research indicates that it can be extremely beneficial for the family, including the child, to try and understand as much as they can about the condition and its care. This helps build trust, reduce confusion and anxiety as well as help them feel included in medical exchanges. The child is also more likely to cooperate with the tests and treatments. Children who do not know about their ailment use their thoughts to fill in the knowledge gaps and may start to think that they did something wrong or are at fault. Taking a positive and encouraging approach to educate the child on this matter boosts morale and empowers the child instead of scaring and stressing them. This is exhibited via design of a demonstration kit named ‘Can Care Pals’ that uses storytelling and play to help ease the information transfer for the children and their parents, specifically for children undergoing cancer treatment. The matter is demonstrated through an inspiring story, narrated using smart and interactive dolls which represent strong and positive characters for treatment, immunity and cancer. ‘Can Care Pals’ also educates and guides the parents or caregiver through the entire process with the help of a supported app. Aided with this app the dolls are capable of comforting, encouraging, setting a routine, dealing with symptoms of the therapy and recording the child’s pain. ’Can Care Pals’ aims at creating a safe, playful and encouraging environment for children fighting cancer.

Paper ID: 128

Mapping the research thread of PhDs in Design: a PhD citation analysis of the Portuguese doctorates

Nina Costa (Aveiro University), Rui Costa (Aveiro University, ID+), Afonso Borges (Aveiro University, ID+), Vasco Branco (Aveiro University, ID+), Raul Cunca (Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Lisbon, ID+), António Modesto (Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Porto, ID+) and Ana Vieira (Polytechnique Institute de Cávado e do Ave)

Abstract: The present study undertaken within the DesignOBS project, is based on 172 PhD theses in Design submitted to the Portuguese National Design Schools between 2005 and 2019. It focuses in particular on the extraction and analysis of 522 PhD citations appended to design doctoral work. The analysis is used to observe school impact, explore the weight of previous design-focused and non-design doctoral work to develop PhD research in Design in the country. The results reveal few connections between doctorates and few overlaps in-between as well as outside design schools thus indicating poor continuity and reproducibility of domestic doctoral work, little tradition of PhD citation, and an important weight of non-design schools. A network-based visualisation of the connections between PhDs in Design within PhD thesis, by use of a citation analysis method, enabled to draw reflections on the status of domestic doctoral research in Portugal and provides an empirical approach to explore the reproducibility of this type of research which may be used in other countries.

Paper ID: 129

Brand Style DNA in consumer products: decoding strategies from a design perspective

Shoubhik Dutta Roy (MIT Institute of Design) and Wricha Mishra (MIT Institute of Design)

Abstract: Brands use Style DNA strategies to differentiate from competition and enhance brand perception. It is, therefore, critical for design professionals to have a clear understanding of these strategies, so as to be able to deliver the benefits successfully. However, literature available on the subject is found to be varying in terminology and largely limited to certain product categories and iconic brands. Brand style DNA concerns the complete portfolio of a brand, but very few researchers have gone to the extent of analyzing a brand’s product range and comparing it with that of competitors. Moreover, a bias towards the marketing and psychological perspectives necessitates re-search focused on the design perspective. This paper consolidates available knowledge into a comprehensive taxonomy, something that does not exist at present. It comprises of four aspects – parameters of brand style DNA strategies, factors to be considered, evolution over time, and deconstruction techniques. Further, this study deep-dives into one of the most prominent areas of decoding brand style DNA strategies – the analysis of explicit design cues. Two existing techniques, namely Design Format Analysis and 4DD Analysis, are critically examined. A systematic and definitive conceptual framework is proposed, that addresses the weaknesses of existing techniques and makes significant improvements through introduction of image boards with multiple views, standardized design cues, and category-level analysis.

Paper ID: 131

Space Design Intervention for Shivarapatna craft

Shivanshu Sagar (NIFT) and Md. Asic Hussain (NIFT)

Abstract: The craft of Shivarapatna is one of the finest stone craftsmanship and has been continuing from the past 2000 years. The craft is world-renowned and has been categorized in a prime category. The sculptures are primarily of gods and goddesses and have seen a dip in their market share as well as taking the craft into the future. The study carries the underlying aspects of Shivarapatna crafts in terms of promoting the craft and creating a branding identity of the whole craft to get a bigger exposure to gain a new market and have a better market share. The craft needs to contemporize to be at par with other crafts but the emotional, cultural and spiritual beliefs are to be taken care of while integrating contemporary design into their product range.

Paper ID: 132


Omsri Kumar Aeddula (Blekinge Institute of Technology), Johan Wall (Blekinge Institute of Technology) and Tobias Larsson (Blekinge Institute of Technology)

Abstract: A data analysis method based on artificial neural networks aiming to support cause-and-effect analysis in design exploration studies is presented. The method clusters and aggregates the effects of multiple design variables based on the structural hierarchy of the evaluated system. The proposed method is exemplified in a case study showing that the predictive capability of the created, clustered, dataset is comparable to the original, unmodified, one. The proposed method is evaluated using coefficient-of-determination, root mean square error, average relative error, and mean square error. Data analysis approach with artificial neural networks is believed to significantly improve the comprehensibility of the evaluated cause-and-effect relationships studying PSS concepts in a cross-functional team and thereby assisting the difficult and resource-demanding negotiations process at the conceptual stage of the design.

Paper ID: 136

The Factors Influencing Usage Intention of Urban Poor Population in India Toward Mobile Financial Services (Mobile Payment/Mobile Money)

Raman Saxena (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati) and Ravi Mokashi Punekar (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati)

Abstract: The development of Information Communication technology (ICT), decreasing cost of mobile phone devices and mobile service including internet on mobile has increased their penetration of mobile phone and internet services across the population including the low-income population. The reach and penetration of mobile phones can ensure the delivery of a large number of services in a cost effective, fast and seamless manner even without physical access. This phenomenon has also shown great potential in using the internet and mobile as a delivery channel for extending the reach of financial services to the marginalised and traditionally unbanked population. There have been several initiatives and measures, both from the government and other private agencies in extending financial services for the economically less privileged.
Demonetisation in Nov. 2016 and later the cashless India push by the government has made contactless and cashless transactions, the preferred choice of many among the population. Digital wallets became the alternative to cash after demonetisation to cope with the cash crunch. Several mobile-enabled financial products and services including mobile money and mobile payments etc. have been launched since then including BHIM, Paytm, Mobikwik, M-Paisa, Airtel Payment, Jio money, Google Pay (Tez), etc. However many researchers have reported that Mobile financial services especially mobile payment/ mobile money has not found the desired acceptance among the large section of the urban poor and the marginalised sections.
The paper present the two studies conducted applying the User-centered approach conducted as part of the PhD Thesis research and its findings/insights. The first qualitative study was conducted to understand and observe the usage pattern of the mobile phone features and services including mobile internet, social media and mobile financial services. This study was conducted in form of In-person unstructured interview, and task observations among the 121 sample representing 73 male and 48 female in Delhi and NCR region to understand their usage, motivation and barriers in using mobile features and services and if the literacy serve as a barrier in using the mobile financial services. The second study was to explore and understand the prerequisites (hardware, software, regulations, etc.), the features offered and steps to setup/register, use two most popular and used mobile payment/mobile money offerings; BHIM and Paytm. If any of these serves any barriers in using these services by the targeted urban poor population.
The findings have pointed out the usage pattern of the mobile-based services including mobile payment/mobile money among the sample. The studies also indicates the factors that influence the usage intention of the mobile financial services (mobile payment/mobile money) among them as well how BHIM or Paytm supports or offer barrier in acceptance and usage amongst the urban poor population.
This paper discusses in details the research objectives, methodology, findings and insights from the two studies and indicates the factors that influence the usage intention of the mobile financial services (mobile payment/mobile money) among the urban poor population in details.

Paper ID: 138

Defining the non-user: a classification of reasons for non-use

Laura Augustin (Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg), Björn Kokoschko (Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg), Andrea Wolffram (Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg) and Michael Schabacker (Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg)

Abstract: With human-centered design becoming more widely implemented within various industries, the user’s needs are being taken into account more than ever. The user of a product or service has been very well defined over the last decades. What is often overlooked is the user’s counterpart: the non-user. Integrating non-users into modern development projects provides great additional value, since addressing their needs can turn a previously inactive group into new users.
First, current definitions of non-users need to be compiled in order to analyse and evaluate them within the context of product development. A contribution is to be made towards creating a comprehensive definition of the non-user that can be applied to product development. Current literature mixes definitions of non-use with reasons for non-use. An analytical differentiation between the two needs to be made in order to comprehensively define the non-user and reasons for non-use.
On the basis of the “non-user map” (Augustin et al. 2020), which classifies different types of non-users based on frequency of use and degree of self-determination, this paper seeks to define and classify the different reasons for non-use. These reasons can be divided into interconnected groups, that show the relationships in between each category.
With non-users and their reasons for non-use comprehensively defined, proposals for their integration into product development can be made. With a new concept of the widely used design tool “persona” (Cooper, 2004), the “non-persona”, now the non-user of a product or service can be included in the development process as well as the user in order to give a more comprehensive understanding of possible requirements for a product or service.

Paper ID: 141

Product Semantics : The Emotional Design Language

Lakshay Gaur (Shiv Nadar University) and Subhajit Chandra (Shiv Nadar Univeristy)

Abstract: This study explores the co-existent nature of emotions and cognition in humans to build and propose a framework that helps correlate ‘likeability’ and ‘sellability’ of a product by introduction of a relatively new term – Unique Selling Factor (USF). The framework runs on context-based logical correlations among its constituents. The aim of this framework is to qualita-tively express the emotional characteristics of a product. As emotions work along side with cognition, the design attributes of the product under the lenses are first analysed as per the three levels of our brain’s processing. Each design feature corresponds to the processing level based on the con-sumers’ probable preferences to choose that feature in the first place. After this cognitive breakdown, we further diverge the semantic analysis at emo-tional levels. Each design feature when stated with the consumers’ probable preference and the cognition level involved, can now help develop context of the scenario. This context that triangulates the connect between the design feature, consumers’ preference and processing level, plays significant role as the backbone of emotionality in the analysis overall. To apply the under-standing built, a logical study is done considering a black V-neck T-shirt as the product under the lenses. For this product we define the likeability, sella-bility and the unique selling factor. For analysis, we create a feature analysis table that sub-divides the product features first, into its design characteristics. Second, against these characteristics are explored the probable reasons the consumer might have had for opting for those characteristics. Third, each reason for the preference for its respective design characteristic is assigned to its corresponding levels of brain processing. Fourth, for the context devel-oped so far, we can assign emotions involved. The co-existence of emotion and cognition paves way for this product - semantic design language. Thus the framework proposed works evidently on emotion and cognition and helps provide a novel perspective – that of the most significant stakeholder of all – the customer and the people we design for. The framework follows an eco-systemic approach that provides it with appropriate literature and a holistic approach.This categorization works on how our minds recognise and categorise objects. Without fining objects in literal terms we are capable to define their abs or ‘fuzzy’ boundaries. It has been found that contour of any physical entity is the very first aspect we intuitively and instantly analyse the moment our eyes gaze on the product. Here, the cognitive process of intuition plays an important role in doing tasks that work on qualitative models rather quantitative algorithms. Hence the triangulation of qualitative and quantitative method describes process of product emotions by developing logical reasoning of product semantics. Such grammar helps build an emotional and abs language of design that imparts a connection into the interaction or the product. On this language, design elements can be shaped that help design products or services that can be valued as emotional works of design.

Paper ID: 144

Mental Imagery for Multisensory Designers: Insights for Non-Visual Design Cognition

Luciana Pereira (Federal University of ABC) and Petter Krus (Linkoping University)

Abstract: How do people with visual impairment see the world? In this literature review based on cognitive sciences findings, we have analyzed the main concepts used in the human brain's cognitive processes to represent our perception of the surrounding environment. One of these concepts is mental imagery, which resembles perceptual experience without external sensory stimulation. This concept plays a central role in multisensory design cognition. It can help us understand the designer's cognition process, design better systems for people with disabilities, and open opportunities for multisensory design teams.

Paper ID: 149

Design of multifunctional artifacts as perceived by potential users: Findings from a preliminary investigation

Vishal Singh (Indian Institute of Science) and Venkataraman Srinivasan (Indian Institute of Technology Delhi)

Abstract: Multifunctional designs such as the Swiss army knife, sofa-cum-bed, smartphones, etc. are commonplace, but there is limited research to assist designers in determining what factors to consider while designing such products. Therefore, findings from a survey-based empirical study that seeks to understand how potential users perceive the desirability of multifunctional products in which the functions of two or more existing products are combined into one product, are presented. The findings from this study can be used by designers to build better multifunctional designs. The empirical study builds on related theoretical work on sharing in designs, especially structure sharing and resource effectiveness, where factors identified from previous work such as relative importance (RI) of the different functions performed by the product, the Quality of Functions (QoF), and the emergent Negative Functions (NF) in the multifunctional product, are found to be relevant. The results and insights from the responses to the survey are presented, and the implications for opportunities for further research are discussed.

Paper ID: 152

Patterns and insights from a design group’s mobile chat– Preliminary findings and commentary on participation in online communities

Vishal Singh (Indian Institute of Science) and Srinivasan Venkataraman (Indian Institute of Technology Delhi)

Abstract: The discussions in online groups and communities that share a common identity and interest can provide useful insights into various attributes and behaviors of the group as well as their beliefs and thinking. Such discussions may also be useful to make preliminary conjectures and hypotheses about the wider community they identify with. Accordingly, this paper seeks insights from an extended group chat among the alumni of a design school of a reputed institute over a logo rebranding exercise commissioned by their alma mater.
An almost collective sense of dissatisfaction among the design alumni with the approved rebranded logo of their alma mater ensured that the discussion extended over a month, providing a rich volume of data and discussion to analyze and reflect on. While the situation was somewhat unique because of the sentiments attached to their alma mater, the range of discussions covered several comments on the outcomes (designs), process, and people (stakeholders). Therefore, this paper presents a preliminary analysis of the discussion. This analysis sought to gain insights into their thinking and beliefs, both as individuals as well as a group. Implications of the findings for design education as well as participation in online communities are discussed.

Paper ID: 154

Practices in Bio-Design: Design Research Through Interdisciplinary Collaboration

Assia Stefanova (Newcastle University)

Abstract: Within the emerging field of bio-design there is a growing need for interdisciplinary practice and collaboration that enables design with living organisms. To facilitate such work designers often venture outside of the limits of their own design field and engage with methods, knowledge, and language of other disciplines. Bio-design collaborations range from fundamental studies to applied research that incorporates existing knowledge and ideas. The examples presented in this paper are part of the author’s doctoral research in architecture by creative practice, that include a fundamental study of photosynthetic bio-composite materials, an applied materials study through the use of fabrication with living organisms and an eco-philosophical graphic novel based on conversations with scientists. The outlined studies demonstrate, the adoption of laboratory methods within design practice, the integration of existing scientific work within design and the organic exchange of ideas through alternative methods of visual communication. The paper explores the opportunities and limitations of such practices and highlights their importance within the field of bio-design. The presented studies help define a spectrum of interdisciplinary collaboration in relationship to discipline specific skills utilized de-pending on design intent and outcome. This paper seeks to highlight the bene-fits of knowledge and skills transfer through bio-design collaboration, offering a range of possibilities using different mediums and modes of communication between practitioners of the science and design fields.

Paper ID: 156

Tool for Flood Proof Residential Design

Minu Pradeep (BMS School of Architecture, Yelahanka, Bangalore, India)

Abstract: A Tool for flood proof residential design for tropical climates combining design thinking strategies based on conditions in Kerala. For the past two consecutive years, Kerala has been inundated by floods which have had a great impact on every citizen’s mind. Loss of life, property and most importantly “dreading the next flood” has left an average Keralite wondering if there is an end to this. Is Kerala really prepared for another flood? Residential construction in Kerala accounts for a huge percentage of its existing ground coverage. It is everyone’s dream to build their dream home in the best way they could, especially in Kerala. The paper aims to bring about a useful tool for architects, specifically for flood resistant residential design catering to Kerala. The paper attempts to make a concise design tool based on regulations and local knowledge. The tool will be designed to give out a set of concise guidelines to architects based on the inputs given, which can be easily followed in the design process. The tool will help in building a better tomorrow, in the context of global warming and increased flooding episodes across the globe

Paper ID: 157

Bridging the Gap Between Service Design Specification and Technical Specification

Ravi Mahamuni (Tata Consultancy Services), Supriya Mantry (Tata Consultancy Services) and Mayur Jadhav (Tata Consultancy Services)

Abstract: Well implemented services can have a transformative impact on any organization. The implementing teams receive service design specifications once the design phase is complete. These specifications include service blueprints, storyboards, touchpoint guidelines, among many other custom artefacts. Service blueprints and storyboards are created considering interactions of a service user with various touchpoints in the journey.
Touchpoints can be broadly divided into human and technical categories. Implementation of technical touchpoints, as envisaged by the designer, will bring the experience alive not only for service users but also for all stakeholders including the service provider. However after the handover of service design specifications to the implementation team, inconsistencies may often be introduced during development of the touchpoints. The touchpoints may differ from the designers’ original vision and affect the stakeholders’ unified experience. It is difficult to trace back the root cause of this mismatch. Typically, to mitigate this problem, the long-term involvement of the service designers is recommended during the implementation phase. However, it may not always be feasible due to the associated cost and effort. Hence there is a need to bridge the gap between the service specification and technical specit=fication to reduce the dependency o service designers during the implementation phase.
There is a need to investigate the handover process and the form and content of the service specifications. For any technical touchpoint, a specification document is created before implementation. It is derived from service specification artefacts like blueprints, storyboards. The completeness and quality of technical specification play an essential role in implementation. In this paper, we propose a method to convert service specification to technical specification, with a way to evaluate its completeness. We scrutinized various technical specification templates available to find various segments of the document. These segments for the touchpoint were mapped directly or indirectly with elements of service specifications. System features and requirement, one of the most significant segments of the technical specification was mapped with points of interactions between stakeholders and touchpoint in the journey. Hence giving a way to trace and validate the service experience by any feature after implementation rollout. Mapping this extensive technical specification with designers early in implementation makes it rich and complete.
We tried out this method in the handover of an in-house designed service to came up with the technical specification of a mobile application, a touchpoint of this service. We also created a working prototype with these specifications, which gave a complete picture of interactions of the mobile application in the service as envisaged — thus helped in validating the service designed.
A good technical specification document leads to seamless implementation. The proposed approach help to reduce the dependency and involvement of service designers during the implementation phase.

Paper ID: 159

The Influence of Personal traits on Indian Millennial’s Adoption of 3D Printed Fashion Products

Indranil Saha (Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad) and Dr. Deepak John Mathew (Indian Institute of Technology)

Abstract: Additive manufacturing technology, popularly known as 3D printing, is a contemporary method of customizing and manufacturing products. The 3D print market is expected to be worth more than $10 billion by the year 2021. The future of fashion aims to make use of 3D printing technology in the manufacturing process; however, practitioners are still doubtful whether this technology has the potential to revolutionize the fashion industry. Although 3D printing technology offers benefits to the businesses and production processes, whether it can replace the present mass production methods is still questionable. Until now, 3D printed fashion is studied from the perspective of material and technology applications. The perspective and adoption intents of the consumers are not explored, specifically in the Indian context. Hence, this research aims to study possible influences of 3D printed fash-ion products’ adoption intention on Indian millennials. Personal traits are the essential basis of human behaviors that are closely associated with human needs. These personal traits, such as social, functional, hedonic, and cognitive attributes, are also arguably better predictors of consumer behavior than demographic or psychographic factors. The current study explores the role of personal traits in adopting 3D printed fashion products through domain-specific factors such as fashion innovativeness and fashion leadership. The data were collected from a convenience sample of Indian millennials via an online survey method. Research findings of this study add to the existing conceptual literature of 3D printing applications in fashion and guide fashion design practitioners by providing influencing factors of 3D printed fashion adoption among Indian millennial fashion consumers.

Paper ID: 160

Design intervention in farm equipment: Using a studio research approach to design a sustainable, human-powered solution for small and marginal Indian farmers

Sanket Pai (IITB-Monash Research Academy, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay), Sugandh Malhotra (IDC School of Design, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay), Selby Coxon (Department of Design, Faculty of Art Design & Architecture, Monash University) and Robbie Napper (Department of Design, Faculty of Art Design & Architecture, Monash University)

Abstract: Small and marginal farmers play an essential role in the Indian agrarian economy. However, climate change, inflation, inadequate supply, volatile market, deterioration of land and water resources, rising input costs, post-harvest losses along with lack of appropriate technology has led to an agrarian crisis in recent years. Small and marginal farmers are unable to use modern solutions due to issues like rising labour costs, lack of capital and unavailability of appropriate technology. Also, as the men migrate from villages to cities, Indian agriculture is becoming increasingly feminised. Hence, there is an urgent need for developing sustainable, appropriate, and affordable farm tools which are gender-friendly, effective, and efficient.
A designer needs to understand various parameters for designing and evaluation of solutions to design and develop appropriate, affordable, context-specific interventions. These parameters range from technical to social, and the process for developing the parameters is described in this paper. Initially, data from various sources were collected and represented visually in mind maps with overlays to understand different layers of activities, existing solutions and needs. These overlays, along with a Design Futures framework, were used as a reference point to generate parameters which would inform and drive various directions for ideation and evaluation during the design process.
The authors have used the user needs pyramid resulting out of the identified parameters to generate a design specification for farm implements. The factors used to generate the specification consider not just the technical aspects but also the socio-economic and cultural aspects.

Paper ID: 161

A design research study to understand factors affecting tool design for small-scale rice farming in Western Maharashtra

Sanket Pai (IITb-Monash Research Academy, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay), Sugandh Malhotra (IDC School of Design, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay), Selby Coxon (Department of Design, Faculty of Art Design & Architecture, Monash University) and Robbie Napper (Department of Design, Faculty of Art Design & Architecture, Monash University)

Abstract: Due to issues of small land size and dependence on traditional tools and methods, small and marginal farmers continuously struggle to maintain a balance between the investment towards this expensive equipment and their crop yield. These issues highlight the need for intervention in the small-scale rice farming domain.
Literature study, along with a discussion with a resource-person from one NGO from the western region of the state of Maharashtra, was used to gain a preliminary under-standing of on-the-ground realities and issues affecting small-scale rice farming. The in-formation collected from these sources were then mapped to generate morphological representations of activities and tools. These were visually represented as overlays on a mind map to understand the current state of tool usage and deficiencies in farm implements.
The authors have used the design methods to visualise the rice farming activities and tools used. The map with overlay can be used as a reliable reference point for generating parameters which affect farm tool design for small and marginal rice farmers.

Paper ID: 162

Design of Railway Station: Creative Expression of Cultural Heritage Identity

Somya Mishra (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati) and Debkumar Chakrabarti (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati)

Abstract: By the mid-nineteenth century, the railway had established itself enough to be accepted as an important party of life in the industrial era, and the railway station took on an increasingly representative appearance. Architects have amended the industrial aspect of the train sheds through more traditional façade design and the station buildings are fighting for a place among the league of theatres, museums, and city halls. Although the architecture and spatial planning have found importance in governance and policies, the role of its embellishments has been neglected. These are mostly treated monographically, ignoring the context of visitors. Establishing the diverse iconography that must be developed for the decoration of railway stations is a part of a larger study to showcase cultural heritage with creativity.
For several decades now, cities all over the world have been applying marketing techniques and increasingly adopting a marketing philosophy to meet their operational and strategic goals. City marketing has grown into an established field of research and an academic subdiscipline. This article explores visual design elements of the Kamakhya Railway Station that acts as a gateway to Guwahati city, Assam for people with the intent of visiting Kamakhya temple. The study proposes a design for the city map with a focus on tourism and its usage in railway station design. Finally, it points to areas for further research and exploration.

Paper ID: 163

Bio-Architecture of Living Root Bridges of Meghalaya

Srinidhi Ravishankar (Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad) and Shiva Ji (Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad)

Abstract: Living root bridges are an excellent example of the amalgamation of human innovation and nature. The bridges are grown by methods of tree-shaping using the aerial roots of Ficus Elastica (Rubber fig tree/Indian rubber tree), which grows abundantly in the tropical rainforest regions of Khasi hills, Meghalaya. The practice has been in place for centuries to tackle the issue of crossing robust water bodies. The technology is not restricted to bridges alone. Ladders, platforms, walkways and even bleachers have been created by utilizing the living root methodology. To understand the significance of Living root bridges in the communities of Meghalaya and their potential to be used as a guiding model for contemporary design practices. The paper investigates and documents the features of Living root bridges and how they are unique to the indigenous context of Meghalaya. It also analyses the impact and usefulness to the communities and economic growth through domestic and international tourism. This is done by studying the ecological, social, cultural and economic scenario of the region and their association to the living root bridges. The innovation by the local Khasi and Jaintia people has proven to be an object of marvel for nature-lovers, engineers, designers and everyone alike. Their superior strength is attributed to their living character and continuous growth over hundreds of years. However, mass tourism can be seen as posing an imminent threat to these extraordinary structures. The living root bridges and their underlying attributes can help to reform the contemporary building, engineering and design practices to become more intertwined with nature for strength and sustainability. Their potential can be explored further by combining the expertise of multi-disciplinary experts to practically test new developments and designs with different plant species.

Paper ID: 169

System Mapping: A Study to Understand the Value Chain of Organic Farming in Sikkim, India

Neeraja Kulkarni (Echostream Pvt. Ltd.) and Mohammad Shahid (IIT Hyderabad)

Abstract: Sikkim is the first official organic farming state in India. However, organic farming brought challenges to both farmers and distributors. Secondary research showed issues in terms of value chain of the organic produce. Design research was carried out to understand the situation of Organic Farming in Sikkim on a broad systemic level. After empathically understanding the issues faced by various stakeholders during the primary research, system maps were created. The paper puts forward a qualitative study about the gaps observed in the Organic Farming scenario of Sikkim, thus putting forth the role of service design as solutions; and its role in making the whole system environmentally sustainable.

Paper ID: 170

Understanding Emotion in Design Inspiration Contexts through the Core Affect Model

Vimal Krishnan R (Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad), Prasad S Onkar (Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad), Alison De Kruiff (Swinburne University of Technology) and Deirdre Barron (Swinburne University of Technology)

Abstract: Inspiration is an important stage in conceptual design, wherein designers interact with different stimuli to generate creative ideas. Various cognitive processes like analogical reasoning have been described in design inspiration scenarios and have also been mapped to ontologies of cognitive psychology. However, the emotional processes in design inspiration are not clearly explained through ontological frameworks. In studies which report the significance of emotion in design inspiration, various aspects of emotion tend to get conflated. This conflation may lead to inappropriate choices of methods to measure emotion. To address this gap, this paper adopts the core affect model of emotion to offer a constructivist understanding of emotion in de-sign inspiration contexts. The components of the core affect model are mapped to aspects of emotion reported in design inspiration scenarios which involve the use of stimuli. The paper then briefly outlines the potential of this ontological approach to study emotion in design inspiration. For this, a specific inspiration scenario is taken wherein a design student, while perceiving stimuli, thinks aloud to denote an emotion. It is then shown that this utterance could instantiate a detailed multipronged analysis in the framework of the core affect model, which delineates various constituent parts of emotion such as core affect, affective quality and so on. These constituents of emotion are broadly linked to different methodological frameworks with which they can be captured and analysed. The implications of this approach for future design research is also discussed.

Paper ID: 171

Comparative Aerodynamic Performance Analysis on Modified UAV's Propeller by using CFD

Prisha K. Asher (Kumaraguru College of Technology), Deviparameswari K (Kumaraguru College of Technology), Feonsa Antonitta B (Kumaraguru College of Technology), Meenkshi S (Kumaraguru College of Technology), Vijayanandh R (Kumaraguru College of Technology) and Senthil Kumar (Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore)

Abstract: In multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), the propeller and its noise generation are plays a focal position in the determination of Radar signature. Because of this detection possibility, the usage of compact UAV in military or surveillance based applications may chance to reduce drastically. Therefore, nowadays a huge research are going on the noise reduction techniques in the UAV's propeller, in which propeller's profile modification technique is primarily reduce the noise generation. But the research on noise reduction is failure to include the primary consideration, which is aerodynamic parameters such as Lift, Drag, etc. In this work deals the comparative aerodynamic performance analysis on various modified UAV's propeller, in which six conceptual designs of propellers are analyzed. The base propeller and five other profile modified propellers are used in this work. The finalized fundamental platform of this work is HQ Bull-nose propeller, which having 4.5 inch pitch, 5 inch diameter and have the capability to provide 500 grams average thrust. CATIA, it is an advanced modeling tool, which is supported a lot for all the models construction. An advanced CFD numerical tool, i.e., ANSYS Fluent 16.2 is used in this work for the prediction of aerodynamic performance parameters for all the models. Finally, based on Lift and its co-efficient, the optimized propeller is obtained by using CFD's numerical tool.

Paper ID: 173

Language & Colour

Shekhar Bhattacharjee (National Institute of Design)

Abstract: Point of discussion started during colour course At NID with B.Des students. In one of the discussion it was found that in India different languages has different colour names and different language has slightly different name for same colour. This was discovered when a group discussion was happening on an assignment, collection of colour vocabulary in mother tongue.
During the time it was came to my mind that along with the difference in name of a colour, is there any difference in the colour itself also. For example, colour Orange, is called Narangi, Keshri etc In Hindi and in Bengali it is called Kamala, Kusumi and so on. But is Kusumi as colour, different from Narangi or Orange? Other way also it can be said that is the word Orange produces different visual perception of the colour while pronounced than the word Narangi or Kusumi.
Also as dealing with visual art it was always made me feel that word has connection with visual perception. Prof V. S Ramachandran established the fact that the sound human vocally produces as word has connection with visual form or shape, it could be other way around also, sound of any pronounced word can bring visuals in mind. ( 29/1 /2020 11.04 am.)
Prof. Dan Everett argued that language is consist of Index, icon, and symbols with grammar. Now index, Icon and symbols are also connected with visual. So, visualization is unavoidable when language comes ( 30/1 /2020 5.20 pm)
Also, it was felt that different language creates different Visual or Multi sensory experiences and sensations for the same phenomenon. For example, Bhay (Bengali) Creates different visualization than Fear (English).
It is also assumed that the language, which is been used during zero to five years of human development can give the deeper appeal because, during the age range most of the cognitive development happens, which has lifelong impact. ( 31/1/2020 4.56 pm)
Couple of experiments were conducted to Investigate two assumptions, one was ‘name of the Same colour in different languages create different visualization of the colour’ and the second one was ‘name of the Same colour in mother tongue creates different visualization than foreign language.
Experiments were conducted during the colour course with B. Des and M.Des Students.,
In first experiment colour Orange was given and participants were asked to pronounce the colour name in their mother tongue. After pronouncing it in mother tongue, whatever colour they had visualized they had to paint it in a swatch of certain size. A range of orange colour was found.
In Second experiment Participants were asked to take a colour and pronounce it in English and paint the colour which were visualized. Then they had to pronounce it in mother tongue and paint it. Same colour was visualized and painted differently in English and mother tongue.
The paper is about relation in between language and visualization, particularly language and colour.

Paper ID: 175

Eco Design, Craftsmanship and Sustainability

Monikuntala Das (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati) and Amarendra Kumar Das (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati)

Abstract: Eco-Design is a product design approach to assess Sustainability through environment and economy. There are many aspects of Indian craftsmanship which absolutely communicate to existing Eco-Design principles pertaining to material, production, execution, wastage, environment and sustenance. This paper investigates the Craftsmanship sectors of Bamboo, Wood, Eri Silk and Brass Metal in Assam of North East India and compares its attributes to the successful principles of Eco Design.
The results suggest that there is a high possibility of implementing Eco Design applications and design processes in craft sectors because there is a considerable compatibility between the nascent attributes of craftsmanship and the principles of Eco-Design, such as high reliability and durability, lower energy consumption, cleaner materials and production, possibilities for recycling etc. The segments which have not been addressed yet, such as remanufacture and packaging, can undergo implementation through design thinking and execution. Technological interventions are required to bring amendments to the existing processing methods to drive towards principles of Eco-Design, and therefore, Sustainability.
Design via craftsmanship can be effectively positioned as an Indian Design identity in the evolving modernity. The intersection can deliver an ecologically viable range of products to the urban market, through which, the Design community can have its efforts calibrated towards the repercussions of waste management and climate change, along with the friction against the rapidly changing environment.

Paper ID: 184


Tushar Amin (Symbiosis Institute of Design), Dr. Tanmayee Puntambekar (Symbiosis Institute of Design) and Aaksha Singh (Symbiosis Institue of Design)

Abstract: Crime rates are escalating all over the world, especially in India. Civilians are resigned to live amidst lethal repercussions of criminal activities that takes place every day around them. Liberty is taken for granted which may lead to fatal consequences. Personal Safety and self-defense plays a very important role in such situations. A good design can prevent loss of human life. Personal Safety tools such as Pepper sprays, firearms, tasers, stun guns, knives, batons etc. are effective non-lethal weapons but they all share a common flaw. All the above mentioned tools are offensive weapons and can also be misused against the victim. They can inflict serious injuries, cause blindness, paralysis or even loss of life. As a result, some non-lethal weapons are banned by law in many countries and their usage is prohibited to even the law enforcement bodies. Another major drawback is that these products can be taken away by the perpetrator and used against the victim. The accessibility and use of these products is not very effective under duress. Also the availability of these product is scarce and limited in terms of variety. A study was conducted to find out if people are aware and satisfied with existing non-lethal weapons. Triangulation method was used to interpret the collected data. Questionnaire and interviews were taken to note if people feel safe in their environment on daily basis. Field visits and interviews revealed a better understanding of the attacker’s psychology and views of the administrative authorities were recorded to establish the need for a new concept of self-defense. This need intensifies as majority of the population feels threatened and helpless for themselves and their loved ones almost every day of their life. Since defending one’s life supersedes the intent to inflict harm, the ideal direction would be to develop a defensive device rather than an offensive one. The product will empower the victim and aid them in neutralizing the attacker so that they are discouraged to pursue the attack further. Such a solution will be a calculated way of protecting oneself without harming anyone.
In an environment where people live in a constant fear, a new innovation in the form of a device that cannot be misused can save many lives. A simple solution that acts as a deterrent and requires no skills can be used by all and the value of human life will be restored.

Paper ID: 193

Identifying context-sensitive methods for sustainable design

Björn Ragnar Kokoschko (Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg), Laura Augustin (Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg) and Michael Schabacker (Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg)

Abstract: The design, development and manufacturing of products inevitably involves environmental aspects (e.g. material and energy consumption) that lead to negative environmental impacts. The awareness of these issues enables an understanding of the immediate effects that design and manufacturing have on the environment and how products can affect the ecosystems around them. We face many problems we can only solve if the design of products is geared towards ecological requirements. This requires product development to be a holistic and interlinked process. In this sense the development of a sustainable product must extend its design perspective beyond product specifications or consumer needs and contribute to a more sustainable environment, from conception to disposal.
T he different methods and tools in product design partly consider very specific impact categories of sustainability by analysing the impacts of an already developed product. So far there is no practical approach to holistic and interlinked product design that sufficiently takes ecological requirements in early stages of the design process into account. This has been attributed to the extensive and complex nature of the relevant knowledge landscape, which makes it more difficult for designers to select appropriate methods and tools. There is a lack of approaches and methodologies for accelerated and optimised application by industry professionals.
In order to minimise the negative environmental effects that grow with increasing population density, this contribution highlights how designers are supported where to find methods, tools and frameworks for eco-design as well as how to use them. For this purpose context-sensitive methods shall be identified that can be integrated in early phases of the design process.

Paper ID: 194

Design, Development and Experimental Evaluation of a Transfer Assistive Device for paraplegic Individuals Using Biomechanical Analysis


Abstract: The present study aimed at designing a simple, yet safe transfer assistive device for lower limb impaired individuals in the context of a developing country. A novel design methodology was adopted by combining the product design process with the concepts of biomechanics, anthropometry and human dynamics in a Human-Machine environment. The first phase of this paper elucidates design conceptualization using biomechanics in a human-machine environment. The second phase investigates experimental validation of the manufactured prototype concerning the user’s experience. Inertial parameters and design inputs were extracted from this set up that helped in the development of the 3D model. To evaluate the present device in terms of user’s comfort of use and level of physical strain, subjects including 19 healthy students serving as “patients” have participated in a laboratory-simulated setting. Data was collected based on user’s physiologic effort and rate of perceived exertion using Heart rate monitoring device (Polar RS 400 heart taster) and Borg’s scale, respectively. The data were analyzed statistically and revealed that the regression equation for predicting the RPE from HR showed 31.3% of the variance in RPE was predictable from the level of HR. The ANOVA significance also indicates the model is statistically significant with (p&60#0.013). Similarly, the estimated strain level has computed in terms of %HRR, and the physical strain averaged over the subjects who performed the task (n = 19) was expressed in terms of (mean ± SD) %HRR were (16.21±7.64 %) which was a relatively smaller strain level as compared to the previous research report.

Paper ID: 196

Service Design for Scale - Overcoming Challenges in Large-scale Qualitative User Research

Ravi Mahamuni (TCS), Shivani Ganwani (TCS), Sylvan Lobo (Tata Consultancy Services), Bhaskarjyoti Das (Tata Consultancy Services Ltd), Radhika Verma (Tata Consultancy Services Ltd), Ulemba Hirom (Tata Consultancy Services Ltd), Supriya Mantry (Tata Consultancy Services Ltd) and Mayur Jadhav (Tata Consultancy Services Ltd)

Abstract: Services must scale up to meet the varying contexts and demands of diverse consumer groups, especially for global consumers, citizen services and organisational services. To enable services for scale, the activity of service design must scale up concerned processes, tools, techniques and people. Beyond traditional design approaches, rather than depending on a handful of designers and stakeholders, we can reap benefits of a more significant number of people and designers, across regions, and considering a wide variety of issues, users and methods to inform the design of the services. In this paper, we deliberate on this conversation of scaling service design by primarily considering the phase of primary research, specifically qualitative user research. Although qualitative user research is accepted as an academic approach, it is often questioned on the grounds of validity and practicality of logistics. When considering service design for scale across very diverse user groups, data saturation may be challenging to achieve with a small number of samples. We argue that it is necessary to tackle more extensive qualitative studies if we want to scale up designing for services, with technology as an enabler. We highlight this need for conducting large-scale qualitative studies while covering theory and critique in literature and propose some of the approaches we have attempted in our service design practice.

Paper ID: 200

A Review on Development of Mechanical Reproduction and the Art of Visual Communication in Indian context

Swarnadeep Nath (Department of multimedia Communication and Design, CIT Kokrajhar) and Bhaskar Saha (Department of Multimedia Communication and Design, CIT Kokrajhar)

Abstract: The emergence of printing press played an important role to bring national consciousness among people. Visual arts or design techniques occupies a unique position as a medium of expression in the field of mass media communication. This paper considered the revolutionary impact of the development of mechanical reproduction on artistic thinking through the visual communication of modern identity. Mechanical reproduction has been a source of information and informative, means of communication and entertaining. The medium of artistic expression was primarily used as a mean of mass communication or a mode of documentation with endless repeatability as its chief characteristic, turned India into an ‘iconic society’. This paper focused on how print media technology has been represented by the time of socio-cultural evolution in the form of visual communication design.

Paper ID: 201

Usability Analysis of Warning Icons in Passenger Car Dash-boards in India using Modified System Usability Scale (SUS)

Sourav Bhattacharya (NIT Rourkela) and Dhananjay Singh Bisht (NIT Rourkela)

Abstract: In the past few years, automobile dashboard and its instrument panel are becoming increasingly complicated as they offer a variety of digitized functionalities such as warning icons. Past re-search shows that certain automotive warning icon designs could be hard to interpret by drivers. A study was undertaken for determining the usability of certain standard warning icons in auto-mobile instrument clusters using System Usability Scale (SUS), and also to investigate the “guessability” of these icons. Here, a set of 20 standard warning icons which are commonly used in new models of Indian cars were selected from ISO 2575:2010 and 50 participants were em-ployed to determine the usability and guessability of these icons. Standard designs of 2 car dash-board warning icons namely “Brake Warning Light” and “Tire Pressure Monitoring System” were found to be problematic. A significant and strong positive correlation was found between the mean guessability score and the mean SUS score for all the 20 warning icons.

Paper ID: 202

Role of Prototyping in Insight generation for product design in Healthcare

Ajit Gopal (Tokyo Plast International Limited), Amit Kundal (Indian School of Design and Innovation) and Ajay Mathrani (Indian School of Design and Innovation)

Abstract: Designing a Healthcare product requires understanding the connection between the human element and the product.
Upcoming medical devices and advancing technologies in healthcare mean nothing without the interaction between doctors and patients. When a person walks in complaining of an ache, it’s the doctor’s job to use their knowledge and
intuition to tease out details and offer a diagnosis. It’s also the same process we should use when designing a product for healthcare providers and users.
To constantly improve and deliver a promising healthcare product it becomes significant keeping the stakeholders of the
healthcare system in the loop and validating our findings. Besides complying with desirability, viability, and feasibility of
a healthcare product it is the trustworthiness and comfort that a consumer need in them. Healthcare products are
briefly categorized into three categories based on the period of usage i.e. Postoperative, Intra-Operative, and Pre -
Operative. In all these periods of developing a product needs to comply with the respective state of mind and bodily
condition of the user.
Quick Prototyping not only helps in manufacturing and processing the development of a new healthcare product but
also creates a crystal-clear picture of the minor and necessary changes to be done. Also, it helps to understand the
skepticism of the user and thus, create new design pathways/concepts.
According to Adam Mikolsi in his paper on “6 methods for developing your concepts and minimizing production cost\", it
suggests that prototyping should make 70% of the product development process.
SUGAR Global innovation network teaches us “Fail early, fail often”, this can be achieved by prototyping and correcting
our flaws rapidly, before we narrow it down to the final product deliverable.
While working on an academic project for SUGAR Global Innovation Network, California; catering to post-operative care
for patients suffering from Anterior Cruciate Ligament tear we adopted and invested quality time on prototyping
adopting the Stanford Design Thinking methodology. It allows testing the prototypes in four stages (a)Critical Functional
Prototype & Critical Experience Prototype (b)Darkhorse Prototype (C)Funky Prototype (d) Functional Prototype, each
imparting an impact on the succeeding prototype.
Prototyping on each stage was validated with users with various forms of prototypes, inclusive of physical/tangible
prototypes, concepts of smart wearable with automized voice, virtual and augmented reality concepts and user
interface-based prototypes. In this manner, it was easy to understand what works and what does not, doubts and concerns were raised by doctors, caregivers and users and also these prototypes became a medium to get to the real needs of users.
Insights we gained via these prototypes were used to finalize the features, decide the products functioning and plan its
manufacturing process with proper dynamics of the product and human interaction maintained. The final product –Exor,
is an application linked wearable to establish a strong connection between the doctors, patient, physiotherapist and the
caregiver which enabled tracking of the recovery progress and provide a customized solution to patients needs while
recovering from ACL.

Paper ID: 206

INCLUSIVE DESIGN – Designing Barrier Free Public Spaces

Suhani Arora (Symbiosis Institute of Design) and Aditi Deshpande (Symbiosis Institute of Design)

Abstract: Interior design as a discipline places humans at the heart of the process and has an underlying commitment to inclusivity. The British Standards Institute (2005) defines inclusive design as: ‘The design of mainstream products and/or services that are accessible to, and usable by, as many people as reasonably possible ... without the need for special adaptation or specialised design [1].’ Inclusive design embraces diversity and enables cohesion among age groups, ethnicities, genders as well as mental and physical abilities. In the context of the Indian scenario, however, inclusive design is not incorporated into mainstream design. Thus, many public spaces remain inaccessible to a large chunk of the population - including the elderly, people with temporary, situational and permanent disabilities among others. Though there are government bodies entrusted to formulate guidelines for making certain buildings barrier free, the ground rules are silent on the implementation of accessible design in public spaces and built environments. This study aims to address the need for inclusivity in designing public spaces and proposes an interior design model that can be accessed by diverse individuals and communities.

Paper ID: 208

Pedagogic influences of Art and Design Schools on Architecture Education in India

Harshitha Raju (NID)

Abstract: This study investigates the pedagogic relevance of Art and Design schools that have had major influences on schools of Architecture in India. The data presented is a culmination of literature review of published articles and papers and analysis of curriculum. ¬The curriculum of top 10 Architecture schools as ranked by NIRF in 2020 are considered here as representative of what is largely being taught in schools of India. The conclusion of the study establishes the prevalent influences of pedagogy of Art and Design schools, subjects that have gained importance and vice versa, and their relevance to the future.

Paper ID: 209

An Empirical Study on Grooming Trends and Enhancements with Concept of Augmented Reality

Sandipan Bhattacharjee (Department of multimedia Communication and Design, CIT Kokrajhar) and Bhaskar Saha (Department of Multimedia Communication and Design, CIT Kokrajhar)

Abstract: Development and progress is based on user interests. In this context, grooming and styling is given importance to a standard which might be difficult to ignore. The visual perception of being presentable and appropriate for a particular event. In that context, a suggesting perspective application design model that delivers appropriate grooming and styling trends for a particular occasions and events. Through a two-fold survey the dependability of the market infrastructure belonging to the service providers depends largely on the market strategies and the quality of work provided by them. The use of augmented reality elements to reach the essential criteria for a suggesting application. It is a design concept approach to overcome the obstacles raised and to enhance the present market scenario. In this paper, the aspect and scope of such implementations of augmented reality elements on commercial basis and rather than just entertainment purposes, has been discussed with users and design based students on how enhancements can be made in this crucial aspect.

Paper ID: 210

A study on Design Concept for Comfortability of Dokhona – for Sustainability of Bodo Traditional Wear and Culture

Chaitali Brahma (Department of multimedia Communication and Design, CIT Kokrajhar), Bhaskar Saha (Department of Multimedia Communication and Design, CIT Kokrajhar) and Debkumar Chakrabarti (Deaprtment of Design, IITG)

Abstract: Design thinking concept is a way to problem solving and also an implementation of comfortness. Tribal women in various tribal dominated areas wear different unique style and has different test of attire pertaining to their traditions. In this paper the focus has been given on Bodo region which is a store house of art and culture in different way of design concept. The uniqueness of the Bodo Dokhona itself is a symbol of its cultural identity. But in the present scenario it has been observed that Bodo women are influenced by western outfits. The discomfort arising from the point of material used in weaving of dokhona as well as the style of wearing in mtoday’s fast life. In this research paper, surveys conducted and reports from doctors and experts also show that the continuous tying up of the Dokhona may lead to muscle pains. In spite of all odds of Dokhona, still women feel that it should be carried on as a mark of Bodo identity giving stress on eco design. Hence this study shall focus on an alternate way of put on, keeping the traditional designs intact and a comfortable method of wearing with the aim for designing for sustainability Bodo culture.

Paper ID: 211

Product Design with Form, Strength and Function for Undergraduate Product Design Students – a Case Study

Saurabh Kumar Mukherjee (Freelancing)

Abstract: At the undergraduate level, many students studying product design often focus on the visual and tactile aspects of the design process. Those students inclined towards a wider perspective with respect to a desire to also focus on the functional, and strength aspects of products, may need a framework to understand how a design moves from an idea to a product. This study, through the example of designing a bicycle (for road use), provides a study on how undergraduate students could be engaged to better understand certain elements in the design of a tangible product. (1) Form, function and strength are key elements of any design which needs to be linked with the user. (2) Trade-offs of various types are needed at every stage of a design process. (3) The tools (including computing software) used are easily available to students at no charge. Product needs to be safe, efficient, attractive and comfortable. Its complexity, in terms of mechanics and mathematics, is provided at levels where a ‘high-school student’ who has studied mathematics and physics, with some training in mechanics and kinematics can understand; while also allowing application of other aspects of knowledge learnt by them, such as ‘color theory’. This, and other studies of similar nature, focused on the incorporation of ‘applied sciences’ more intimately with product design courses, at undergraduate levels, might help graduating students to be better prepared to serve in industry.

Paper ID: 212

Memes that Evokes Emotions: A neurodesign strategy for brand communication and experience

Anirban Chowdhury (School of Design (SoD), University of Petroleum and Energy Studies (UPES), Dehradun-248007, Uttarakhand, India.) and Prasun Chakraborty (School of Design (SoD), University of Petroleum and Energy Studies (UPES), Dehradun-248007, Uttarakhand, India.)

Abstract: A meme is a component of a culture or system of behaviour passed from one individual to another by imitation or other non-genetic means. Now-a-days, memes are predominately observed in social media like Facebook, Whats-app etc. Memes communicates various messages either directly or indirectly in a codified manner. This is a new language of communication, sometimes viral in nature. Although the memes are used for sharing social messages, strategies for brand communication using memes are less explored. Memes has potential to evoke responses in human brain and activates emotions. Therefore, objectives of this paper are to analyse the effect of different design elements used in memes on emotional responses and to demonstrates few strategies for brand communication using memes. A total of 20 memes were analysed to identify design elements such as character images (human, animal, emoticons etc.), taglines, dialog cloud, logo etc. which helps in composition of memes. Later, the level of emotion generated by memes were measured using Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) scale. It was observed that character image and taglines are most effective elements that are evoking different types of emotions among participants. After that, a minimalistic neurodesign strategy for brand communication has been developed for effective brand communication using these design elements for memes. It was observed that there are potential to develop memes for brand communication based on emotional responses.

Paper ID: 216

BRASSIERE DESIGN - An Unconventional approach

Tushar Amin (Symbiosis Institute of Design), Dr. Tanmayee Puntambekar (Symbiosis Institute of Design) and Dyuti Ravisankar (Symbiosis Institute of Design)

Abstract: The need to have a form fitting garment that provides support to the breasts tissue has been around since a very long time, the earliest documented examples of brassieres date back to 7th century India. Brassieres have evolved over time from being a cloth that was tightly wrapped around the breasts which as time progressed changed to tight blouses worn under traditional Indian sarees. Despite it having been around for such a long duration, in terms of functionality and comfort, the change has been minimal. Even today, the bra lacks support to counter women's breast motion and this leads to back aches and physical discomfort with the straps digging into the shoulders of the user. With the current generation of Indian women tending towards western attire, the bra needs to be a perfect fit.
A complicated wear by itself, women finds it difficult to find the right size owing it to each women's body being different from one another, as well as, the manufacturing defects and the wrong measuring techniques applied. This causes a majority of them to wear the wrong size throughout their lifetime. Interviews were conducted to understand the difficulty level of wearing the bras, choosing the right size, type and problems faced with regular usage. The data collected was analysed Qualitatively with grounded theory approach.
Moreover, the availability of various styles, fits and sizes of brassieres further confuses the consumer from choosing the right fit for them. Usually they buy multiple brassieres for several occasion. As a result, more brassieres are ending up in the landfill contributing to the fact that the apparel industry is a leading cause for global warming. The purpose of this study is to explore the need for an accurate fitting bra which is comfortable and supports breast movement. Throughout history women have been made to feel insecure about their bodies, not accept it for what it actually is and further inculcating self- doubt. Hence there is pressing need of developing a product which molds itself to take the size, shape and form of the breast tissue thereby making the user feel less body conscious and more confident.

Paper ID: 218


Manohar Mahato (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati) and Amarendra Kumar Das (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati)

Abstract: Seating system for handloom weaver need appropriate height from floor and distance from treadle and sley handle, having similarity to the tailor working in a sewing machine. Handloom weaver need to work by their hand and leg simultaneously in a regular dynamic pattern for long time. It is difficult to weave by different weavers having different body dimensions but seating on a system that is same for all. Currently, weavers are using stool or a fixed bench as the seating system for weaving. Therefore, some weaver weave in awk-ward posture that causes occupational health issues over time. Therefore, it is very important to have a proper adjustable seating system with weaver’s reachability to handle for beat-up motion and to paddle in the treadle for shedding motion. A field study was carried out in Sualkuchi and mega hand-loom cluster at Sivasagar in the state of Assam, India to understand the health issues associated with the seating system and to find out regarding ex-isting seating system used by the weavers. This paper deals with the positive impact through design intervention and development can have on the wellbe-ing of handloom weavers if a new seating system considering anthropometry, physical ergonomics and operational factors is made available to them. An al-pha and beta physical prototype model was fabricated with anthropometric data considering Indian men and women. Simulation was carried out with both lower and higher percentile manikin in CAD tool to get the adjustment range required in the new seating system of ‘De sign: a semi-automatic hand-loom, design and developed by Department of Design, IIT Guwahati.

Paper ID: 223

Effect of different root canal filling materials in endo-perio lesions: Design and computational analysis

Anupam Purwar (ISB Hyderabad, IISc Bangalore) and Pragya Pathak (M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences)

Abstract: Dental problems are mostly multifactorial in nature and, thus difficult to diagnose and treat. A tooth infection which leads to degeneration of pulp and subsequent loss of tooth vitality is called an endodontic lesion. Whereas, a disease affecting the supporting structures of tooth such as bone/ligament is known as periodontal lesion. When an infection is identified with both endodontic and periodontal involvement, it is termed as endo-perio lesion. Endo-Perio Lesion (EP) is a complex disease entity which involves the tooth structure as well as the supporting periodontium. This study was conducted with an aim to assess the effect of different root canal filling materials on different classes of Endo-Perio Lesions (Simon’s Classification, 1972) using computational modeling. Thus, enabling the clinician in making an informed decision for treatment planning of Endo-Perio Lesions.
In the present work, mandibular molar human tooth with lesion(damage to tooth/surrounding tissue) has been precisely modeled in consultation with a clinician(Dentist). Then, four different finite element models representing different types of EP lesions were developed. Next, finite element models were validated with experimental data for a normal tooth under a defined (300N) masticatory load. Highly refined structured mesh with high fidelity second-order elements was generated and ANSYS was used to perform the structural-analysis. It was observed that stresses at the root apex increased with an increase in dimension of lesion. However, filling of the root did not affect stress distribution. MTA-based filler creates more stress when there is periodontal involvement or a true combined lesion. This is in accordance with a clinical study, which reported better sealing ability of gutta percha in comparison to MTA [1]. Biodentine as filler has not been investigated for its performance in a simulated study so far. However, Biodentine was suggested as an alternative to MTA and has better regenerative capacity due to its bio-active nature[2][3]. In this perspective, our study provides clinical inputs to dentists regarding use of Biodentine as filler.
Thus, a comprehensive engineering investigation has been carried out in close consultation with a clinician to determine prospective fillers for dental ailments. Such cross disciplinary work involving a design engineer and a clinician also demonstrates the importance of collaborative research for getting meaningful design insights in biomedical sciences. The insights from this finite element based investigation is being used currently for therapeutic purpose by clinicians.
1. Vizgirda, P.J., Liewehr, F.R., Patton, W.R., McPherson, J.C. and Buxton, T.B., 2004. A comparison of laterally condensed gutta-percha, thermoplasticized gutta-percha, and mineral trioxide aggregate as root canal filling materials. Journal of endodontics, 30(2), pp.103-106.
2. Nowicka, A., Lipski, M., Parafiniuk, M., Sporniak-Tutak, K., Lichota, D., Kosierkiewicz, A., Kaczmarek, W. and Buczkowska-Radlińska, J., 2013. Response of human dental pulp capped with biodentine and mineral trioxide aggregate. Journal of endodontics, 39(6), pp.743-747.
3. Zanini, M., Sautier, J.M., Berdal, A., Simon, S., 2012. Biodentine induces immortalized murine pulp cell differentiation into odontoblast-like cells and stimulates biomineralization. Journal of endodontics, 38(9), pp.1220-1226.

Paper ID: 224

An approach to identify indigenous colour palette: Case study of Majuli

Sunanda Sahu (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati) and Sunanda Sahu (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati)

Abstract: This study aims at deriving a methodology to identify the regional essence of a place by focusing on its chromatic aspects. In this paper, a case study of Majuli, a river island of Brahmaputra river has been taken for research. Majuli has 22 Satras, the religious institutions which came into existence after Neo Vaishnavite movement lead by Sankaradeva in 16th century. These satras are center for Majuli’s performing arts and handicrafts. They play a very crucial role in Majuli’s history and culture. The present study was done by collecting visuals and handicraft articles using primary and secondary research methods. An approximate number of 150 colors were extracted from these visuals using image processing. These colors were further analyzed and grouped to achieve a clear view of prominent colors associated with Majuli.

Paper ID: 225

Redesigning walker for elderly

Nilanjana Bairagi (National Institute of Fashion Technology) and Prathmesh Mahajani (National Institute of Fashion Technology)

Abstract: The present paper aims to redesign a walking aid for the elderly through user-centric design research approach. The study involved 12 elderly volunteers. During the research detailed observation has been carried out in the area of the daily activities of the elderly, in their real environment with assistive devices and interaction with other objects using ethnographic research method. Users’ problems and preferences towards assistive devices were also studied. It was found from the pilot study that the existing walkers make the elderly feel psychologically dependent and disabled. Many elderly per-sons found it shaky while using. This lead to non-use or abandonment of the walker, though medically advised. Therefore, this study focused on redesigning of walker to address the above issues. The designing criteria were derived from the observations and interviews with stakeholders, concepts were developed, prototypes were made and user tested, prior to arriving at the final design.
During prototyping and material exploration, indigenous natural material like rattan cane was used to design the walker with additional features like bottle holder, newspaper holder, mobile phone holder. User trials indicated the advantages of the rattan walker -like easier handling, faster gait speed due to 16% lighter in weight and aesthetically pleasing appearance. There was an increase in the gait speed of the users using rattan cane walker as compared to the conventional walking frame. The psychological effect of feeling disabled was significantly reduced with the new design as observed during the study. The study shows the possibility of designing user-centric walker using rattan cane walker for the elderly in India.

Paper ID: 229

Digital preservation of the Qutb-Shahi Monuments: Archiving Architecture for Historical Education

Chaitanya Solanki (Indian institute of technology Hyderabad), Deepak John Mathew (Indian institute of technology Hyderabad) and Gino Joseph (Indian institute of technology Hyderabad)

Abstract: Organized assortments of photographs have given birth to the method of photogrammetry which has earlier helped geologists in topographically mapping terrain and landscapes. Photogrammetry is a technique of measuring from photographs. It is usually associated with the making of maps from aerial photographs. When the same logic is set as an algorithm, it helps the software yield an even more accurate topographical product, but now with the additional capability of 3d projections. This can, in turn, be used to create photo accurate 3D models of any building, object, landscape desired. Along with technologies like virtual reality, photogrammetry can enable a viewer to be present in a digitized landscape that can be developed to look close to the original. This paper documents how the above set of technologies were used to virtually archive the monuments of Qutb Shahi tombs in Hyderabad. The process included photogrammetry, point cloud creation, UV mapping, texture modeling, mesh generation, etc. Thereafter, a digital setup of it was made and displayed through virtual reality. The result was a tangible, virtual land-scape of the Qutb Shahi tombs, where the viewer could digitally navigate and see the monuments up close. The built artifact was then tested in a pilot study (n=35) for its engagement with high school students as a tool for education in the classroom. The early results of the respondents have been positive in adopting VR exploration of historical monuments as a supportive tool for education. The future scope of evaluating this setup includes more exhaustive testing in schools of India.

Paper ID: 230

Changing the Traditional Lingerie Shopping Experience through interaction design

Navyashree S (MIT-Institute of Design), Aasta Mawlikar (MIT-Institute of Design) and Wricha Mishra (MIT-Institute of Design)

Abstract: Despite the digital age, and Internet of Things, bringing shopping to the comfort of one’s living rooms, at the click of the mouse, lingerie shopping, in India, however, has not been able to change the prevalent mind set of women. Women in India, we find, have stuck to the time tested traditional mode of physical visits to their favourite shops. The reasons primarily being to physically try them on and avoid the cumbersome process of online returns.
Through this study, we, the authors, seek to help women overcome their inherent inhibitions, elevating their offline shopping experience. This has been arrived at through a set of user centric design methods, addressing the issues confronted by women during shopping.
In the course of the study, we found that women predominantly spent much of their time a) picking brassier styles, b) checking brassiere sizes and c) closeted in trial rooms, before making their final purchases, if any.
The study, has evolved a concept, which optimises the search for lingerie in stores, saves frequent visitation to trial rooms and, facilitates brands understand better customers’ trial choices and purchasing patterns. The inherent benefits of the proposed solution and future scopes for possible adoption have also been detailed in the study.

Paper ID: 234

Design for Obsolescence Resilience

Amel Soltane (Quartz laboratory, SUPMECA), Sid-Ali Addouche (Quartz laboratory, SUPMECA), Marc Zolghadri (Quartz laboratory, SUPMECA), Maher Barkallah (Laboratory LA2MP of the National School of Engineers of Sfax (ENIS)) and Mohamed Haddar (Laboratory LA2MP of the National School of Engineers of Sfax (ENIS))

Abstract: Today, it is crucial, if not inevitable, for any company to make major or minor changes to the design of marketed products or systems in order to remain competitive. The accelerating pace of technological development fosters these changes, which can lead to the appearance of obsolete components, technologies or system functions. It is now accepted that obsolescence occurs because of the difference between the life cycle of the components and the life cycle of the system that incorporates them.
The resolution of the consequences due to obsolescence, whether proven or predicted, can have a significant impact on the architecture of the system. Indeed, due to couplings and dependencies, modelled in the system architecture, the consequences of obsolescence rarely remain confined. They can then spread gradually throughout the system. System architects and product designers must therefore be able to propose architectures that are resilient to obsolescence. In other words, they should be able to make design choices that, even when there is a risk of obsolescence, ensure continuity of functionality with the expected performance and within constraints.
This work consists in proposing modeling of the system architecture using probabilistic graphs. These models offer the possibility to study various design configurations and to determine their consequences on the performance and functional requirements of the system. We propose simulations of different design scenarios in the presence of obsolescence. The objective is to qualify the resilience of the system under different design alternatives. A set of numerical experiments will be conducted to identify the most resilient design. This approach will be illustrated by a case study from a weather forecasting system. A discussion of the results and conclusions will conclude the paper.

Paper ID: 236

What does the HCI design industry expect from an entrant? - findings from interviews with Indian UX Design team leads

Surbhi Pratap (IIT Delhi) and Jyoti Kumar (IIT Delhi)

Abstract: India is the world's largest exporter of HCI products. However, limited research is available on the HCI design processes adopted in the Indian industry. This paper reports findings from in-depth interviews with 25 Indian HCI design team leads on the design processes followed in the industry and the competencies expected from design professionals. One of the key findings from the interviews suggests that the industry expects a graduate to have an understanding of the business value of the design processes adopted for a given problem. It is also expected that entrants have knowledge of different types of HCI design processes relevant to specific organizations like agile sprints, lean processes etc. Further, for each of the different design processes adopted by the industry, the specific core skills are expected to be present in the new professional in order to work seamlessly in the industry. Skills like stakeholder engagement ability, sprint usability testing, time management, user research techniques, usage of appropriate terminologies in design communication, co-creation ability with stakeholders of different expertise etc. are what the industry expects from new HCI professionals. The findings of this study have curricular, pedagogical and strategic relevance for both HCI academics and industry.

Paper ID: 238

Investigating the use of 3D solid-modeling tools in the early idea generation stage of product design: An exploratory study

Purba Joshi (IIT Bombay) and Chakravarthy B.K. (IIT Bombay)

Abstract: The vast intervention of CAD tools and the ubiquitous availability of computers have changed the culture of product design and have given birth to a new generation of engineers and designers. It has become a necessity in today’s fast-moving technology-driven world and an integral part of the designer’s work environment. Initially, the application of CAD was mainly restricted to later stages of design, but in recent years, it has seen increased attention in the idea generation stage.
The paper illustrates an exploratory study conducted with five professional product designers who were given a design task to be performed in a limited time. The data used for the analysis was the visual data recorded during the design exercise and verbal data from the interviews. The visual data was recorded with the help of a video camera and desktop recording software. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants to collect supportive data for the analysis and were audio-recorded. The video recording of the whole activity was transcribed and tabulated and occurrences of study parameters were mapped visually. This also helped establish a method to analyze a design activity with the visual mapping of study parameters. Supportive verbal data from the interview helped qualify some of the findings and cover the missing points that were difficult to identify in the time-bound exercise or through observation.
The qualitative analysis of the study helped identify visualization as the strongest enabler offered by the use of CAD in the early idea generation stage. It also indicated the other enablers as confidence building, faster process and ease of prototyping. The most evident barrier identified through the study was circumscribed thinking. Circumscribed thinking occurs when ideas get limited or affected by the skill level of the designer (Robertson and Radcliff, 2009). The study also throws light on how CAD is used in the process when the design brief requires functional or problem-solving exploration versus formal exploration. It was observed that during formal explorations, considerable time was spent on exploring how to model, leaving lesser time for design exploration and decision. It was also observed that during CAD modeling more time was spent on details and less on the overall design.
The study helped understand how designers accommodate CAD in their exploratory process in combination with other tools like sketching and physical modeling. It strengthens the view that CAD has become an integral part of the design environment and is extensively used even in the idea generation phase of design.

Paper ID: 239

Design of a maternal healthcare monitoring device for pregnant women in rural areas

Deepika Gopalakrishnan (Faculty of Architecture and Design, PES University, Bangalore), Pramoddini Warale (Faculty of Architecture and Design, PES University, Bangalore) and Rahul Bhaumik (Faculty of Architecture and Design, PES University, Bangalore)

Abstract: Around 800 maternal deaths occur every day from preventable causes related to pregnancy and childbirth. A majority of these deaths are caused due to pregnancy-related complications and occur in low-resource settings. To improve the current situation of maternal healthcare in rural areas, this paper proposes an IoT based solution that monitors the vital signs of a pregnant woman and her foetus. At a socio-systemic level, the solution ensures communication of the vital data across relevant stakeholders(e.g. healthcare professionals, family members, and others), thereby ensuring timely intervention in case of abnormalities. Several unmet needs and pain points of pregnant women were identified across the antenatal, intrapartum and postpartum stages of pregnancy from surveys, interviews, and literature, based on which a list of requirements was formulated. Ideas were generated against the finalized design brief and preliminary evaluation was conducted to filter the ideas. Concepts were then explored from the set of viable ideas using different design methods like relational mapping, bundling, and mash-ups. The proposed design seeks to reduce morbidity and prevent maternal deaths through the facilitation of timely medical intervention, by connecting various stakeholders involved at the time of pregnancy.

Paper ID: 243

Image is a tangible element of visual communication: Role of the image to increase social awareness

Bappa Das (JAIN The D-School) and Debkumar Chakrabarti (Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati)

Abstract: Photographs act as an essential medium for increasing awareness among people. India is the second-largest populated country and with mixed culture. Awareness and social issues is a really big mission. Proper use of imagery is crucial for raising social awareness. Consequently, one of the government's primary reform initiatives revolves around spreading awareness on various social issues. Since im-age or photograph has a long-lasting and significant effect on the human mind, the awareness campaigns by the Government sizably depends on such a medium to reach out to a large number of audiences. In this situation, it may be specified that the visual medium, like various electronic platforms, posters, banners, hoard-ings plays a significant role in enabling such initiatives to develop social awareness at a larger scale across the society.

Paper ID: 244

Competitive Branding of Sustainable Domestic Products: A Product Semantics Approach

Rik Bhattacharjee (Department of Design, School of Planning and Architecture, Bhopal) and Saurabh Tewari (Department of Design, School of Planning and Architecture, Bhopal)

Abstract: A study of packaging for three different types of sustainable domestic products was conducted to understand the design strategies by existing brands and the consumers’ perception about the same. The objective of the study was to know if all the additional values of a product of such kind are effectively communicated through their packaging. This study utilises Product Semantics as a tool to analyse the packaging design at two broad parameters of the conceptual framework; Packaging Semantics and Branding Semantics; encompassing a range of factors like form, shape, material and texture of the packaging and the use of typeface, colour and graphics on it. Multiple user surveys and reviews conclude that there is an evident gap in the effective communication of the values of sustainable products with the existing design strategies. New strategies were then devised to design packaging for the three different types of products to overcome the shortcomings in the existing strategies.

Paper ID: 245

Lightweighting in electric vehicles: Review of the design strategies based on patents and publications

Anton Kumanan (Indian Institute of Information Technology Design and Manufacturing, Kancheepuram), Sudhir Varadarajan (Indian Institute of Information Technology Design and Manufacturing, Kancheepuram) and Karthic Narayanan (Indian Institute of Information Technology Design and Manufacturing, Kancheepuram)

Abstract: Lightweighting is one of the key focus areas in the automotive industry. It continues to be in focus even as the industry is shifting from Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) to Electric Vehicles (EV). While the objective of lightweighting is similar in both ICE and EV, the differences in the product architecture of EV when compared to ICE affect the scope and approach for lightweighting in EV. In this paper, we attempt to tease out the lightweighting design strategies being adopted by automotive industry for EV. The key drivers and their relationships are identified through a study of recent patents and publications using a network perspective.

Paper ID: 249

It is not a driverless car! - A frame work for interacting with the AI in autonomous vehicles

Peer Sathikh (Nanyang Technological University) and Guan Yi Tan (Nanyang Technological University)

Abstract: Autonomous vehicles are starting to become a reality. In the not so distant future, streets are expected to be populated with these intelligent autonomous beings ferrying passengers alongside human driven vehicles and pedestrians. The bulk of research today seem to focus on setting up the required software and hardware systems, alongside policies and transportation infrastructure. A review of autonomous vehicle developments show that the technologies in progress today aim to create a functional autonomous vehicle service towards the creation of a network of artificial intelligence (AI), capable of making informed choices when performing their work, and adapt to the needs of their passengers. A gap is seen to exist in the realm of the vehicle to passengers interface. This calls for research in developing capabilities in social transactions that are more familiar to human beings, taking cues from natural conversations and body language signals.
This is because autonomous vehicles not only need to perform navigational duties, but also need to communicate, respond and reciprocate in a social manner. According to the authors, this would give the AI the dignity they deserve when performing their functions. This paper proposes a framework for future communication between autonomous vehicles and humans, with a focus on the working relationship between the vehicle and its passengers taking references of the communications theory related to human to human interactions, extrapolating to human to AI interaction within the autonomous vehicle.

Paper ID: 252

MONEY TALKS : “Back to the future”- Challenges in Banknote Design

Rukmini Dahanukar (Nirmiti)

Abstract: As artifacts of popular culture, banknotes signify more than just tokens of payment. Banknotes are at the heart of our exchanges and interactions. They are omnipresent and ubiquitous. Circulating for more than 300 years now, they bear witness to our everyday lives, our possessions, our stories and our memories- close to our hearts and deep in our pockets. With galloping technological advancement, on-going additions to payment gateways and alternate global currencies; banknotes would seem to be following the path of the dodo. In fact, it is just the contrary!
The last decade has seen a growth of 175% of the US Dollar bills and around 190% of the British pound notes; even the relatively nascent Euro hit a staggering 200% increase in note circulation!
With counterfeiters relentlessly at their heels; banknotes; substrates adorned with mind-boggling artworks integrating constantly updated security technology into production techniques; ceaselessly need to stay ahead; befitting the adage, “back to the future;” perhaps like no other product design or innovation.
The size- restricted, the medium- paper, recently polymer, two-dimensional and two sided, the method- printing, foiling and special security technologies; not much has changed over the past three centuries considering the influx and constant bombardment of inventions leaving most products and practices obsolete or redundant! But not this medium of exchange. That is exactly what makes the banknote and its design so extraordinary and challenging!
Apart from the usual, mundane exchange; our interactions with banknotes run deep. They are experienced and consumed by our senses; even if less apparent and more subliminal. Seeing the magnificent and indigenous artworks, feeling the raised and intaglio impressions, hearing the flutter and folding (the crushing sounds are tests for real versus counterfeit notes); they have an extremely personal relationship with each of us on a daily basis. To make their design decisions further complex; they are also handled by machines regularly. Optical and magnetic sensors to assist the multiple interfaces and technology need to embedded in the notes for effective exchange. Banknotes are thus, part of an elite group of products that are handled both by men and machines. And as far as the quantum of exchange is concerned; they securely lead by a hefty margin.
Designed exclusively and uniquely, individually customised, artistically bespoke and yet for a wholesale, across-the-board, extensive exchange; to be used anywhere, anyhow, anytime; a perfect blend of form and function, of information and security, of exchange and trust, of durability and bio-degradability; makes the banknote- the most coveted of design possibilities, practices and commissions!
Not to forget, each note, in its medium and its message integrates ‘zeitgeist’- the spirit of the time; reflecting the promise of its currency. This research presents- “back to the future;” the on-going journey of the banknote that continues to offer challenges and opportunities- a noteworthy specimen for the design of tomorrow.

Paper ID: 255

Design of Bamboo Shelter Kit For Post-disaster Temporary Shelter Response

Kankana Narayan Dev (Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati) and Amarendra Kumar Das (Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati)

Abstract: Shelter Aid is an integral part of Humanitarian Aid in post-disaster situations. The built environ-ment is the most affected sector in the rapidly increasing events of natural and man-made disas-ters. In these scenarios, sustainable design solutions need to address the loss of habitat and dis-placement. North-Eastern part of India is very vulnerable to natural disasters primarily flood, earthquake and landslide and annually over a lakh of people are displaced. People in the rural areas in this region reside in Bamboo Houses. Recent explorations of Bamboo as a material in contemporary architecture suggests an environmental stratagem towards achieving sustainability in the built environment. While, ecological considerations, social and cultural impact establishes the need for a form of architecture that is flexible, lightweight in construction. This study looks into the lifecycle of post-disaster emergency shelters with an ecological perspective to determine the critical aspects of design, material sourcing, manufacturing, delivery and disposal in an envi-ronmental friendly way possible. Further, this study attempts to design a post-disaster temporary shelter kit to establish the crucial characteristics of Bamboo Architecture that make it successful. The design decisions based on Bamboo elements with partial prefabricated and portable compo-nents show that mobile bamboo buildings are feasible, and can fulfil many different roles and are economically viable to build and operate in post-disaster situations. The study concludes with a recommendation for further iterations of the shelter kit towards sustainable recon-struction in post-disaster situations.

Paper ID: 257


Anosh Amaria (University at Buffalo), Felipe Meneguzzo Pasquali (University at Buffalo), Jason Armstrong (University at Buffalo) and John Hall (University at Buffalo)

Abstract: Additive manufacturing is expected to bring about the next industrial revolution. With depleting resources, additive manufacturing, with its zero waste manufacturing approach seems promising. The recent developments in composite design and manufacturing goes hand in glove with this development. However, our knowledge of the behavior of these structures under various loading conditions and profiles is still not completely understood. As a result, this method of manufacturing has not found its way into many engineering applications. Furthermore, the behavior of additively manufactured composites is different from their other counterparts. Mechanical properties, need to be determined if additive manufacturing is to truly take on other manufacturing processes. This work highlights an experimental procedure to determine the elastic and tensile properties of Kevlar-reinforced nylon composite. Thermal Gravitmetric Analysis (TGA), has been performed to determine the volume fraction of fiber and matrix components. A relationship between the nylon raster layers and the Kevlar fiber was also checked using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Samples of this composite with varying Kevlar-nylon layer ratio have been additively manufactured based on ASTM D3039 standards. A model to compute the elastic and tensile properties of 3D printed Kevlar reinforced nylon polymers is presented. In order to determine ratio of load borne by the Kevlar and nylon, a rule of mixtures model was used. The model demonstrates the relation between volume fraction and load bearing capacity of the constituents of the composite can indeed be fit into the rule of mixtures model that is used on conventionally manufactured composites. This work focusses on loading the samples only in the print direction. This model will give users a deeper understanding of how additively manufactured composite samples behave under loading. Moreover, it will facilitate the process of design for additive manufacturing.

Paper ID: 258

Powerpost: A Framework for the Analysis and Design of Visual Political Communication

Anik Ghosh (Department of Design, School of Planning and Architecture, Bhopal) and Saurabh Tewari (Department of Design, School of Planning and Architecture, Bhopal)

Abstract: Visual media, an essential medium of political communication in modern democracies, has been a critical part of political campaigns across the world for more than a century. The first uses of visual media for political communication was in the late 19th century when political parties employed multimodal (containing both textual and pictorial information) posters for election campaigns. World War I accelerated the use of political posters by governments as tools of propaganda for their war efforts. Since then, political communication through visual media has evolved and now includes billboards, television commercials, and social media posts along with election posters.
In the contemporary context, the usage of such modes of political communication is not limited to political parties and governments but are also being used by broader stakeholders in democracies. Members of civil society are increasingly using visual means of political communication for various causes, including expression of dissent against their governments and those in positions of power. For such kind of use and users, there lies an opportunity for developing a framework for designing effective visual communication.
Through analysing historical and contemporary visual political communication, this research develops a framework to frame parameters for designing effective new political communication in a visual medium (particularly in the form of posters).
At its foundation, this framework consists of an understanding on three levels. First, the syntactic includes the choices made regarding framing, usage of colour, usage of iconography, type selection, etc. Second, the semantics, i.e., the meaning associated with the imagery and the textual/verbal content of the communication. Third, the pragmatics, which looks at the imagery and textual/verbal content in the political context of time and space. Further, it looks into dimensions such as the communicator of the message, the intended recipients, and the desired effect the communication. The variety of parameters contributes to objectify otherwise subjective political communications.
The research deals with a broad landscape of visual culture to empower the values of democracy. Through a historical and contemporary understanding of related visual culture, it enriches the literature resolution. The purpose is to develop and design a product for prospective users and enable them to design their unique political communication like posters and digital campaigns.

Paper ID: 268


Tanima Bhattacharya (Ranbir and Chitra Gupta School of Infrastructure Design and Management, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur) and Joy Sen (Department of Architecture and Regional Planning, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur)

Abstract: Recent urbanization trends have skewed a balance distribution within a system of cities in a nation. According to the report of the United Nations (2015), 54% of the world’s population has continued to reside in urban areas and, it will soon be 66% by the year 2050. Rapid expansions of the city territories and population have continued to make the distribution of city-systems imbalanced. Compared to the cities in the developed countries, cities and their constituent urban spaces of developing countries are struggling to retain their identity. Mosaics of urban spaces are thus becoming an unmanageable complexity depleting the possibility of a liveable city fabric.
Cities like Kolkata, which has a colonial past, is striving hard to retain and balance adequate infrastructure to support the needs of the incoming population from the neglected hinterland. On the physical, environmental and cultural fronts, the continuous pace of struggle has destabilized an acceptable yardstick of the urban experience. Hence, a gap has widened between liveable urban designs, on the one hand, and a balanced distribution of facility and infrastructure on the other hand. A consequent sense of disjointedness is physically evident and therefore, normatively detrimental. To cope with the present scenario and secure good complementarity between the two, organizing principles of space design and urban engineering of infrastructure are needed to be brought together. Thus the paper aims at earmarking a process of balanced regeneration, based on the application of principles of complementarity in urban design and urban engineering. The study has underscored a re-envisioning of urban regeneration practices, suggesting a paradigm shift from a standpoint of ‘either –or’ to a liveable principle of complementarity.
To explore the principles of complementarity, the paper explores two areas of Kolkata, i.e., area around RabindraSadan and Saltlake City centre area. The former one is the most prominent cultural node, housing Victoria Memorial, representing the architectural brilliance of the British colonial era. On the other hand, Saltlake city-center area is a famous cultural, entertainment zone. Both the areas exemplify strong tangible (technical) and intangible (art and normative dimension) heritage, having strong physical as well as cultural connotations. But, skewed urban design practices have caused inequitable access to the stakeholders and therefore, hinder performance towards public well-being.
Hence, the paper has attempted to best approach the principle of complementarity rather than exploring the constituent parameters of the two, i.e., urban design and urban engineering in isolation. The study has arrived at an integrated toolbox based on required technological (tangible) and artistic (intangible) Elements of Design, to devise stepwise analyses of bringing the complementarity between the two design elements, i.e., one, action plans and possibilities of urban regeneration to induce happiness and wellbeing two, experience of space. Finally, the paper attempts to establish the principle of complementarity of technical and artistic elements of design for sustainable urban regeneration. The paper, therefore, tries to establish a new framework for urban regeneration practices, processing a paradigm shift away from a conventional standpoint of ‘either-or’ to the principle of complementarity.

Paper ID: 272

Prototype Driven Innovation: Propositions Based on Challenges and Opportunities

Supradip Das (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati) and Amarendra Kumar Das (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati)

Abstract: Existing New Product Development (NPD) methods are specification driven; where product specifications are typically made before prototyping starts. The existing method does not allow enough space for modification because of the association of sunk cost. Hence, the prototype driven specification would enhance New Product Development with better prototype experience. But the prototype driven approach does not have structured tools and methods to foster. Hence, it is very difficult to introduce and practice in design education. Systematic literature review had been done to identify the drivers, principles or guidelines and support tools in prototyping and prototype driven new product development process. A structured and sequential process followed to illustrate the initial reference model and impact model to identify the means that may foster the emergence of proto-type driven new product development from design education perspective. This state of art review also describes, discusses and connects the existing research to articulate propositions, which would help the future research in prototype driven innovation.

Paper ID: 274

Design for small businesses in India - helping the real entrepreneurs

Vipul Vinzuda (National Institute of Design), Jitendra Singh Rajput (National Institute of Design) and Amresh Panigrahi (National Institute of Design)

Abstract: Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set in 2015 by the United Nations aims to achieve a better and sustainable future for all, intended to accomplish by 2030. This paper presents the innovative and creative efforts taken up by a multidisciplinary team of designers, researchers, engineers, and architects who worked on a pilot project, which was presented to the Ministry of Micro-Small Medium Enterprises (MSME), India.
The focus of the project was to understand the challenges faced by a non-organized business or small business trades ranging from tea vendors, vegetable vendors, etc., How design interventions can bring an improved 'value perception' in the society while providing ease of work, more earnings, cleanliness and overall well-being to these hardworking people in India.
Design is considered an essential strategy for innovation to create differentiation in the market. During this project, the designing is explored as a catalyst to bring positive social change. The team studied selected popular trades, which are generally present in every town of India, by conducting field trips, photography, and observational studies to collect data. The map of problems vs. opportunities was generated. The specific requirements derived from this study offered rich insights and established the need for design interventions at the product-service-system level.
Further, a Co-design workshop was conducted with Design students focusing on the future of vending- Improving employment opportunities in small businesses through mobility.
The paper highlights the design process, creative explorations, and design developments of solutions. This pilot project provides future directions and lists ample opportunities for designers to play an active role in bringing social transformation.

Paper ID: 276

Dots and Lines: Indian Folk and Tribal Art Inspired Activities for Kids

Rinki Sambhani (Department of Design, School of Planning and Architecture, Bhopal) and Saurabh Tewari (Department of Design, School of Planning and Architecture, Bhopal)

Abstract: As the Folk and Tribal art reflect the cultural identity of a region, this research comes up with a culture-centric design. The research and design aimed at using an indigenous design tradition to engage children in various creative methods; here, an exploration of the Gond painting of Madhya Pradesh's visual forms creates a new learning tool. The study and design revisit the curriculum and art activities for children in primary school to facilitate how they can reimagine the design around them, including the primary forms, shapes, colours and textures around them. We attempted to address the research and design objectives by transforming initial ideas through a new learning tool based on the representation of the visual forms of Gond painting tradition of Madhya Pradesh.
The design process involved a series of field study in nearby private schools to realise the apathetic gap towards art-craft in pedagogy. We employed the Gond painting and its interpretation to develop a visual language, motifs and medium in the problem-context. The ideation included creating different artwork. It enquired how the process can be made easy and fun for students considering purposes of creativity, education and self-learning. We tested initial concepts with ten students of standard third to fifth. Post-conceptualisation, we developed prototypes and further refined it through beta user testing with children by organising a workshop on the Gond painting by a prominent Gond artist with thirty students from different schools from the city. Based on the insights and feedback received, another series of additions and considering the pragmatics of production, the look of the product, and children's preference, we made final refinements. The process proved that fun and utility product outcome is an essential element in designing for children learning experience.
The designed product, Dots and Lines: a learning kit on Indian Folk and Tribal Art inspired activities for Kids, forwards the indigenous design language. It comprises stories and life forms which not only provoke the creative interest of a learner but also informs her towards the cultural aspects of India's vernacular art forms. The design attempts to promote the creative capacity of children and increase access and engagement in the art and craft activity books of the primary class by providing quality participatory arts and promoting Indian folk and tribal art. As the human impulse to paint is related to the need to communicate, express and make sense of the world around, here the users, children, will understand the value of indigenous craft and its application.

Paper ID: 277

The Creative Prints of Artist Somnath Hore: A Review


Abstract: The print exists in simple traditions of taking impressions of palms of newly wedded couple by dipping their palms in kumkum or turmeric paste, a practice found in different households of India. (Bhatt, J. 1974, p.2). It gained prominence in propagating religious images in multiples in different parts of world, including India. (Mukhopadhyay and Das 1985, p.5). With the technological advancements, the techniques of printing gained momentum and became an important way to disseminate news and illustrations by printing newspapers, periodicals, magazines and books which made it a commercially viable method to reach out to masses. (Mukhopadhyay and Das. 1985, p. 7; Mukherjee, B. 2011, p.94).
A turning point in the history of Indian Printmaking came as introduction of Graphic Art in the curriculum at Kala Bhavan, Santiniketan which was not just to train students in the technique of printing but to express themselves through this medium.
One of the prominent printmaking artist from Bengal who played an important role in setting up Graphic Art Department at College of Art (New Delhi) and later contributed to Santiniketan as a teacher is Somnath Hore. His continuous experimentation with the form, textures and its relevance to the theme of wounds defined Indian Printmaking in terms of giving it an identity.
This paper reflects upon various perspectives (aesthetic, technical, thematic etc) through which the artist’s prints have been looked at and understand the combination of intuition and planning as printmaking requires technical knowledge.

Paper ID: 282

Androgynous Fashion from the Concept to Consumers: An Empirical Study

Indranil Saha (Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad), Akanksha Akanksha (Amity University Kolkata) and Diotima Basu (Biswa Bangla Marketing Corporation Limited)

Abstract: The concept of androgynous or gender-neutral fashion is known for its distinctive attribute that blends both conventional masculine and feminine design characteristics. In the history of fashion, the notion of androgynous fashion has been evolving since the 1920s, although it was irregular at times. In the postmodern western cultures, androgynous aesthetic in fashion is increasingly accept-ed, encouraging the multiplicity of gender expressions. With significant influencers of the generation identifying themselves as gender-neutral and speaking out on the topic, the concept of being gender fluid is catching a lot of attention recently in the international fashion industry. Androgynous fash-ion is an emergent trend, which reflects in fashion ramps with models showcasing silhouettes and design elements that breakdown gender stereotypes. With this in mind, the current research aims to study androgynous fashion from both conceptual and user-centric perspectives in the Indian context. Data were collected through primary and secondary sources. Relevant secondary data were gathered from various books, research papers, and fashion publications to set the conceptual context of the research. Additionally, to gather primary information about the Indian LGBTQ consumers’ perception of androgynous fashion, a questionnaire was circulated among young Indian fashion consumers using convenience and snowball sampling methods. The results and analysis of the study reveal the aspirations behind the gender-neutral design genre. This study also brings out the emotional needs of the Indian LGBTQ community members, who are the primary consumers of androgynous aesthetic.

Paper ID: 283

A field investigation of the average indoor thermal comfort parameters on the railway pantry car kitchen at the different cooking period

Md Sarfaraz Alam (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati), Arunachalam Muthiah (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati) and Urmi Ravindra Salve (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati)

Abstract: Thermal comfort is the condition of the mind that the people report contentment with the surrounding environment. Four major environmental factors like; air temperature, radiant temperature (estimated by globe temperature), relative humidity, and air velocity influence thermal comfort. There are various kinds of literature available on thermal comfort in buildings, hospitals, industries, etc. in developed and developing countries. However, few pieces of literature are available on the kitchen environment like; rural homes, restaurants, and hotels, but related to the kitchen environment of the railway pantry car is almost nill. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the average indoor thermal comfort parameters on the railway pantry car kitchen at a different cooking period. A total of 14 railway pantry cars included were this study in which six and eight pantry cars took in the summer and winter seasons respectively in 2018. In this research, with the help of a kestrel anemometer 4500, air temperature, relative humidity, and air velocity were measured. Although globe temperature measured was with a 6-inch black-globe thermometer. Descriptive analysis and Kruskal-Wallis tests performed were for the investigation using SPSS-16 software. A result of the descriptive analysis indicates that in both seasons, the value average thermal comfort parameters were found maximum at lunch and snack preparation time. The outcomes of statistical analysis revealed that there is no significant difference between all thermal comfort parameters during the summer season at the cooking period. A significant difference found between thermal comfort parameters during the cooking period in the winter season except for the parameters of relative humidity and air velocity. Furthermore, this result will help in estimating the comfort temperature of the pantry car kitchen at the modification of the workplace.

Paper ID: 284

Co-designing with Visually Impaired Children

Anupriya Gupta (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati), Lokesh Fulfagar (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati) and Pankaj Upadhyay (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati)

Abstract: Co-design methodology takes user-centered approach a step ahead by including end-users directly in the design process. It ensures that their needs are well addressed by involving them as true experts of the experience. But when it comes to visually impaired (VI) children, it presents some unique challenges which mostly remain unaddressed with limited research in the domain. The paper addresses this gap by presenting a set of learnings which can assist the development of techniques for co-designing with VI children. We explore the co-design methodology for conducting ideation as part of a broader project centered around indoor navigation for VI children. We begin with a discussion of existing literature around co-design techniques for children and related work done for VI adults. Primary research was further done to understand the routine activities that VI children involve in and the challenges they face. Inspired by the insights gathered from this research, new co-design techniques were ideated. In all, 5 activities were chosen and conducted during the co-design session with 6 VI children. Findings and observations from this session are presented in the paper. Activities were found to be useful and thought provoking amongst children. It helped them in thinking and expressing new creative ideas which finally contributed in determining key directions for the solution. Finally, we present our learnings and discuss the best practices for conducting co-design sessions with VI children. These learnings can be further expanded and referred by fellow practitioners to build more innovative and accessible solutions for VI children.

Paper ID: 286

Development and Evaluation of Usability Heuristics for Voice User Interfaces

Lokesh Fulfagar (Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati), Anupriya Gupta (Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati), Arpit Mathur (Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati) and Abhishek Shrivastava (Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati)

Abstract: In recent years, voice user interfaces have evolved substantially, enabling seamless and efficient human-machine interaction through spoken language. In spite of the increasing research, there is an absence of explicit evaluation methods for Voice User Interfaces (VUIs) for enabling their improvement. Presently, the evaluation criteria are primarily based on subjective metrics such as user reviews, ratings or likelihood of future use. While these met-rics have utility, they are often subjective to the users, and offer hurdles to research such as cost of recruitment, time and resources. Other alternatives are performance based such as response time and error rates, offering value to developers, but little insight into the design of these systems. There is a need for a usability-based evaluation method for VUI, analogous to the Heuristic Evaluation metrics proposed by Nielsen & Molich for screen-based interfaces. To address the same, our study presents a set of heuristics for usability evaluation of VUIs. Initially, existing literature in the domain of VUI was analysed to identify prevalent themes of usability issues. These themes were then categorised to define 11 usability heuristics. The set of heuristics will enable designers to rapidly evaluate and investigate areas of improvement in VUIs. A between-subjects study with 12 HCI profession-als, involving usability evaluation of a VUI application, was conducted to test this hypothesis. The study reveals a statistically significant increase in the number and diversity of usability issues identified using the presented heuristics.

Paper ID: 289


Pranav Satpute (IIT Guwahati), Ravi Mokashi Punekar (IIT Guwahati) and Avinash Shende (IIT Bombay). Approach for Industrial Design and Evaluation of Product Integrated Solar Photovoltaic (PIPV)

Abstract: The term Product integrated photovoltaics (PIPV) is used for the products which includes integrated solar PV panels to provide electricity for the function of product. As PV panel is driving whole function of product, it becomes critical component which dictates overall design of it. In current scenario most of the easily available solar panels in market are rigid in nature with varying sizes and ratings. Also, there is an involvement of electronic system including charge controller circuit and batteries. It affects form exploration process while conceptualisation of product. Objective of this study is to understand the involved barriers in design process of PIPV products and to extract a design approach for them. To understand design process and evaluate one concept of PIPV product, it is prototyped and tested with users in actual scenario. Paper compiles the observations gathered from the journey of PIPV product from ideation phase to realisation phase and it concludes with framing of step by step approach for designing of new PIPV products. Evolution of product based of predefined parameters contributes guideline loop to reiterate PIPV product concept for its improvement.

Paper ID: 293

Review of Building Energy Code and its Implementation in Residential Sector: A Global outlook

Kratika Piparsania (Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati) and Dr.Pratul Chandra Kalita (Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati)

Abstract: Building energy code, standards, ratings, and labels provide minimum efficiency requirements for new, existing, and renovated buildings, ensuring reductions in energy use and emissions over the life of the building. Energy code is the subdivision of building codes, which establish baseline requirements and direct building construction. Yet, these codes will only be able to deliver outcomes when implemented. The study of building energy code needs to be considered in a consistent and comprehensive way in order to achieve low carbon development and future sustainable goals. This paper identifies the process and practic-es for establishing residential energy code, covering 12 countries globally, including a comprehensive review for code coverage of buildings and its design, implementation context, revision schedule, penalties, incentives, materials, and certification schemes. This paper highlights a global scenario of energy code and approach followed by various countries and followed by recommended practices for India.

Paper ID: 295

A tool to design a user centered Town plan

Abhishek Singh (Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati) and Pratul Chandra Kalita (Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati)

Abstract: The race of rapid urbanization has ended up developing numerous smart cities around the globe. But many of the cities developed in the last couple of decades have not been able to attract as many occupants as expected. A large amount of funds and resources are exhausted in this sector but the returns are not satisfactory. The infrastructure development is as per the vision and brainstorming of the experts and policymakers of the society. But the same is not accepted by the end-user of the recently developed smart cities. So, it is very important to understand the requirement of the end-user, to make these projects successful. The conventional methods of data collection for town planning like questionnaires, personal interviews, group discussions, public hearings, etc are having their limitations. The major issue with these data collection tools is they all are very time consuming and effort-intensive. The end-users lose their patience or interest and end up giving biased data. Which fails the entire purpose of end-user data collection. Hence, in this paper, we have designed a tool to collect user centred data from a large number of people, in a short duration of time. We have used card sorting techniques for making it interesting and easy to understand for the users. The data collected from this tool can be easily converted into the base blueprint of the city. The zoning of the city can be easily done and the same can be used as a framework for detailed planning as per the requirement of the users. So, this paper is on designing a user-centred town planning tool. This tool will ensure that the requirement of majority of the population is taken into consideration. It can be converted into a mobile app-based tool to have the vote of the entire population for designing their own town.

Paper ID: 296

Sustainable Microgrid Design and Operation based on the Quality of Life in Rural India

Hailie Suk (University at Buffalo), Ayushi Sharma (SunMoksha Power Pvt. Ltd), Anand Balu Nellippallil (Mississippi State University), Ashok Das (SunMoksha Power Pvt. Ltd) and John Hall (University at Buffalo)

Abstract: Sustainable Microgrid Design and Operation based on the Quality of Life in Rural India
Access to electricity can have beneficial impacts on the quality of life (QOL) in developing communities. Advancements in health, safety, and education can be realized through powering lights, water pumps, fans, and other devices. Still, electrical power is not widely available to rural Indian villages. The lack of availability is due to the remoteness of the villages and associated costs of the grid transmission infrastructure. Therefore, rural electrification often involves the use of solar microgrids. However, the implementation and sustainability of these systems are impeded in the rural setting due to a variety of challenges. The microgrid has a limited capacity that relies on resources that are intermittent in nature. Power consumption also increases for a period of time following electrification. The increase is due to changes in population and individual demand behaviors – both of which are difficult to predict. A problem occurs when the village outgrows the microgrid. Blackouts occur at an increasing rate which hinders rural development along with the QOL. This is the impetus for our work -- a mathematical framework for integrating QOL and power management into a smart microgrid system. The approach creates quantifiable relationships that exist between these domains in the context of sustainable rural electrification. The authors have proposed a set of eleven parameters to define the QOL. Each of these parameters can be evaluated through three components. These components are the condition, community importance, and energy dependence. The quantities established through this model make an inference to the design and operation requirements of the smart microgrid. Our work has considered the QOL model as part of the compromise decision support problem (cDSP). The cDSP is used in our framework to manage the limited supply of power among various electrical demands. In doing so, power is maintained to those needs which can sustain the QOL in the rural village. The authors’ work has demonstrated a technique in which the QOL may be quantified. At this point, we seek collaboration through the ICoRD community. Through this collaboration, we hope to improve the accuracy of the QOL model and the overall utility of our proposed framework.

Paper ID: 297

A novel user centric assistive device for enhancing luggage security in Indian railways

Md Arif Ahmad (PDPM Indian Institute of Information Technology Design and Manufacturing, Jabalpur), Chiranjeeb Deb (PDPM Indian Institute of Information Technology Design and Manufacturing, Jabalpur), Tushar Sindhwal (PDPM Indian Institute of Information Technology Design and Manufacturing, Jabalpur) and Biswajeet Mukherjee (PDPM Indian Institute of Information Technology Design and Manufacturing, Jabalpur)

Abstract: The security system at the Indian railways mainly focuses on the X-ray scanning of baggage and metal detectors for ruling out the possibility of any life-threating object. Though so, the current management does not focus on the user-centric needs of safety and security as a service within the trains. The number of passengers traveling by Indian railways is ever-increasing and implanting a strong security system at all major/minor stations remains a challenge. Baggage theft in trains has remained unapprehended as a crime. As a consequence, people try to stay attentive by themselves which adds to a certain level of cognitive load for the users.
Currently, the Ministry of Railways has approved the installation of the \"Integrated Security System\" at important stations after detailed deliberations [1]. The system will comprise of Internet Protocol based Close Circuit Television (CCTV) surveillance system with video analytics, Access control, Bomb Detection System and Personal and baggage screening system. The implementation of these systems is very slow and is not very efficient when it comes to personal baggage security inside trains. In the last 10 years over 1.71 lakh theft cases were reported by railway passengers [2]
To investigate this problem from design perspective, field research was performed based on a survey of 107 participants and over 20 interviews were conducted as a part of Direct Observation and Analysis [3]. Multiple user case scenarios and a behaviour matrix were used to generate insights based on which a solution was proposed. This solution presents an electronic device, coupled with sensors and a microcontroller, which will be paired with a smartphone. The user can place this device inside the baggage for leveraging the security of their luggage. The device can measure instantaneous orientation of baggage using a 6-axis rotation sensor. On lifting the bag without informing its owner, the device shall detect and pass the information to the owner’s smartphone through wireless technology. The smartphone receives the data and raises an alarm. The device is insensitive to the rotation and vibration of the train movement. The design of the user interface in the smartphone is based on the minimalistic design principle to facilitate maximum convenience for users to operate it. A prototype was developed using an MPU6050 sensor, an Arduino nano, and a Bluetooth module. The device was successfully tested in various trains and the feedback was appreciated by the primary users.
[1] Indian Railways Annual Report and Accounts (2016-17).
[2] The Economic Times 2019, The Economic Times, viewed 28 Apr 2019, &60# >
[3] Tschimmel, K. (2012). Design Thinking as an effective Toolkit for Innovation. In: Proceedings of the XXIII ISPIM Conference: Action for Innovation: Innovating from Experience. Barcelona. ISBN 978-952-265-243-0

Paper ID: 298


Pranav Venkatesh (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati), Supradip Das (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati) and Amarendra Kumar Das (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati)

Abstract: Children of this era are considered as ‘digital natives’ as they are born and live in a world integrated with digital technologies. As a user of digital technology, they are expected to be aware of the fundamentals of computational thinking and logic to use it as a creative tool. Though there are many efforts to introduce computational thinking at the K-5 level globally, many children are still not exposed in India to the tools and techniques of the computational thinking and many of those who are exposed are apprehensive of learning how to code. The major reasons observed in India are 1) Lack of exposure to the computer in many areas, 2) Lack of ludic value in the process of teaching computational thinking, 3) Cost of the toys and games available in the market are still beyond the capacity of many people, 4) Design of the toys and games without considering zone of proximal development. To address these issues a set of unplugged activities has been designed and developed using blended prototyping approach and the 5/10 method of game design as a framework. This paper illustrates the effort into a comparative analysis of the existing products, user study, state of the art review, design and testing to validate the design of low-cost unplugged activities for teaching computational thinking at the K-5 level.

Paper ID: 299

using Harley Davidson Advertisements

Deepshikha Dash (Indian Institute of Technology Bombay) and Sugandh Malhotra (Indian Institute of Technology Bombay). Mapping design values across time for a single product category (two wheelers)

Abstract: In the field of mobility, Harley Davidson is an iconic brand that has a loyal fan following. Hence, it is beneficial to observe the design values that the company has been propagating over time. To do this, the authors conducted a manual text analysis of 150 American Harley Davidson advertisements, which were evenly distributed across five decades beginning from 1920. The result of this analysis showed that irrespective of social, cultural, political, economic, or technological changes, ten design values were repeatedly observed in the advertisements namely aspirations, style, performance, convenience, affordability, comfort, durability, safety, conservation and security. The authors then further identified the ways in which each design value was achieved over time. In conclusion, the results of the study have been presented as a list to help mobility designers by providing them design values that have withstood time. The underlining idea behind this paper being to demonstrate design values through change rather than design values of immediate influence.

Paper ID: 301

Visual Framework of Color analysis of shop signs in India

Nanki Nath (National Institute of Design Ahmedabad)

Abstract: Shop signs contribute to the visual representation of business identities through color, form and materials. Among these, in the context of India specifically, color becomes the foremost significant attribute for business image building in especially multi-cultural and competitive commercial street marketplaces. The researcher could observe and integrate certain qualities of colors displayed on shop signs through this methodological research approach of Bricolage [1]. These qualities are the four quadrants/factors of the illustrated framework in this paper. We have re-defined all the four quadrants by following an inductive rationale. This was done by selection of characteristic keywords for each quadrant from the established definitions, etymologies and findings by researchers and practitioners in the field of design. The classification theories using morphology, thematic basis, groupings and orderings as empirical data helped to formulate the framework of color analysis. The final picture of the framework illustrates all the four quadrants and their respective classifications along vertically and horizontally aligned domains. This form of the framework is flexible enough to provide multiple perspectives of quadrants as individual qualities as well as relative ones in a collective analytical group in order to analyze colors displayed on shop signs.

Paper ID: 303

Spectacles of the Temporal City: An analysis of the effects of Festivals on Identity in an Urban Context

Anusmita Das (Department of Design, IIT Guwahati) and Amarendra Kumar Das (Department of Design, IIT Guwahati)

Abstract: Cities around the world are becoming complex systems wherein every city possess unique identity manifested through its people and activities that occur in its urban spaces. The sense of urban space is an ever changing concept and to understand the fabric of urban spaces, knowledge of the concept of space and its interrelations is required. Reading a city in a time where change is the norm, with urban spaces gaining new meanings and functions with changes in cultural practices conveys the hybrid urgencies of metropolitan India. An analysis is thus, particularly relevant in India, as in the post-industrial scenario, cities in India have become some of the largest urban conglomerates with a dualist identity of static and kinetic pervading their urban landscape. The static city is the conventional physical entity of a city whereas, the kinetic city is perceived as a city in motion, temporary in nature and the emerging symbolic image of urban India. Understanding these multitude of identities in the backdrop of traditional events and festivals, as temporal transformations of urban spaces will thus highlight the dominant visual culture of Indian cities. This Temporal City enables a better understanding of the blurred lines of contemporary urbanism and the changing roles of social space in the urban fabric. This study focused on the ancient festival of Ambubachi in the historic Kamakhya Temple in Guwahati, India through visual ethnography, participant observations, open ended interviews, photography and document analysis. The central concern of this paper is to develop a critical stance on understanding the identities of cities through the study of urban spectacles such as festivals in a bid to illustrate the fluid and dynamic aspect of one’s identity that is being constantly redefined and reconstructed with time, space, activities and context. Through the analysis of this ancient festival of Ambubachi in the light of ‘identity’ and ‘place attachment’ of the festivalgoers, the emerging notions of identity will be explored. The fieldwork sought to analyse two major aspects: The first was the generic, spatial characteristics of festival spaces and the second was the temporal, fleeting events that occur in their physical settings following the parameters of event-space relationship by Frenchman in a bid to understand how such eventful urban spaces manifest in the negotiation of one’s identity.

Paper ID: 304


Farrokh Mistree (University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma) and Janet K. Allen (University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma)

Abstract: Digitization is disrupting our world and shaping the challenges that newly minted graduates will need to address in their professional careers. The solution to manage such disruptions is anchored in the principles of sustainability and values that are foundational to mitigating inequities by managing the tensions between the pulls of People, Planet and Profit. To succeed in the digitized world. we suggest that we provide the opportunity for our soon to be designers to develop five non-technical, career sustaining competencies:
1. To continue learning through reflection and the associated creation and articulation of knowledge.
2. To speculate and identify gaps that foster innovation.
3. To ask questions, actively listen, reflect, and identify gaps and opportunities worthy of further investigation.
4. To make decisions using incomplete information.
5. To think critically (deductive reasoning and inductive speculation) and identify a way forward.
Our intent in this talk is to promote reflection, dialog and action on modifying curricula to provide our soon to be designers the opportunity to internalize non-technical career sustaining competencies and values that empower them to foster societal and technological innovations that promote sustainable development and mitigate societal inequities.

Paper ID: 305

Visuo-Locomotive Complexity as a Component of Parametric Design for Architecture

Vasiliki Kondyli (Örebro University), Mehul Bhatt (Örebro University) and Evgenia Spyridonos (University of Stuttgart)

Abstract: A people-centred approach for designing large-scale built-up spaces necessitates systematic anticipation of user's embodied visuo-locomotive experience from the viewpoint of human-environment interaction factors pertaining to aspects such as navigation, wayfinding, usability. In this context, our research develops a behaviour-based visuo-locomotive complexity model that functions as a key correlate of cognitive performance vis-a-vis internal navigation. Furthermore, we also demonstrate the model's implementation and application as parametric tool for the identification and manipulation of the architectural morphology along a navigation path as per the parameters of the developed (visuospatial complexity) model. We present examples based on an empirical study in two healthcare buildings, and showcase the manner in which a dynamic and interactive parametric (complexity) model can promote behaviour-based decision-making throughout the design process to maintain desired levels of visuospatial complexity as part of a navigation or wayfinding experience. A people-centred approach for designing large-scale built-up spaces necessitates systematic anticipation of user's embodied visuo-locomotive experience from the viewpoint of human-environment interaction factors pertaining to aspects such as navigation, wayfinding, usability. In this context, our research develops a behaviour-based visuo-locomotive complexity model that functions as a key correlate of cognitive performance vis-a-vis internal navigation. Furthermore, we also demonstrate the model's implementation and application as parametric tool for the identification and manipulation of the architectural morphology along a navigation path as per the parameters of the developed (visuospatial complexity) model. We present examples based on an empirical study in two healthcare buildings, and showcase the manner in which a dynamic and interactive parametric (complexity) model can promote behaviour-based decision-making throughout the design process to maintain desired levels of visuospatial complexity as part of a navigation or wayfinding experience.

Paper ID: 310

Design and Development of Ceiling Broom with Dust collector

Shohel Gardia (National Innovation Foundation), Abhishek Gupta (National Innovation Foundation), Swadha Krishn (National Innovation Foundation) and Swastik Subham Sith (National Innovation Foundation)

Abstract: In India, Ceiling Broomsticks are available and used for dust and cobwebs cleaning but People in India utilize the Grass broomsticks for both floor and ceilings. It is observed that there are many ergonomic and health problems associated while cleaning ceilings even with particular application-oriented products. Problem statement involves fall of dust on the person cleaning ceiling especially in eyes and nose which is very hazardous and also results in cleaning of the residual dust again. Considering the feasibility factor, an innovative broom is designed with a hopper for collecting. After several trials products has been driven through CFM (Colour-Finish-Material) whose aftermath is a transparent sheet for better visibility and viewing angle. In addition, Target users are not only restricted to the domestic users but also enfolds all the applications which demand hygiene especially medical centres.

Paper ID: 312

Design and Development of a Glass Holding Plate Accessory

Abhishek Gupta (National Innovation Foundation), Akash Kaushik (National Innovation Foundation) and Vishwa Goswami (National Innovation Foundation)

Abstract: Problems has been observed, people suffer from water spill while eating in plates in standing position. We contemplates this as a major issue than what it is perceived commonly. An ergonomically verified solution is needed for the users which can be adopted easily. After many permutations and combinations with different forms and CFM (Colour-Finish-Material) a detachable device is designed which can be attached to the plate while eating. It persists 3 point gravity locking system attributed on claw. The developed device can hold any size of glass without any hassle and tends to remain stable during any movement due to gimbal arrangement. The same has been tested successfully with assorted meal plates which opens the gate for its vast application.

Paper ID: 314

A case for Intuition-Driven Design Expertise

Natrina Toyong (Universiti Teknologi MARA), Shahriman Zainal Abidin (Universiti Teknologi MARA) and S'Harin Mokhtar (Universiti Teknologi MARA)

Abstract: the role of intuition in decision making is widely recognized in many fields which saw a strong network of an intuition-based research community in this early turn of the century. However, it is poorly studied in the design field and notably little has been published on its role in design decision making especially on the early concept stages of the design process. Reviews of previous studies reveal that task uncertainty and creativity have a positive and significant impact on expert intuition. This makes it a more convincing case for studying the highly unstructured mode of problems that are typically found in design. The case study on intuition-driven design expertise was done as a triangulation of data source from the in-depth interview of eight expert and eight senior-level designers, followed by four sessions of focus group involving thirty-two participants made out of novice-level designers. Working around the common theme of \"Future workplace for Designers in the year 2050\", the result produced a rich comparative and descriptive attributions of intuition-driven decision making between experienced and novice designers at three different types of intuition. These finding later informs the three decision-making model for training design expertise based on (1) Affective Intuition which draws on emotion, heart and feelings; (2) Heuristic Intuition which draws on logic, theories, facts and hunches; (3) Holistic Intuition which draws on abs thinking, big ideas and big picture.

Paper ID: 321

Exploring Two Housing Typologies in the Vernacular Architecture of Assam, India

Srinidhi Ravishankar (Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad) and Shiva Ji (Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad)

Abstract: The vernacular habitat structures are built in a manner that is not only energy-efficient and sustainable but also resistant to seismic and fluvial events, wherever applicable. Vernacular architecture goes hand-in-hand with tribal art and architecture, and this makes the Northeast style of architecture stand out from the rest of India. The paper investigates the evolution of habitat and their association in two typologies of houses - Assam-type house and Chang Ghar to understand the distinctions of each type. Case examples are taken to analyze and compare the commonalities and distinctions over the other. It was found that one is an advanced and evolved version of the other in terms of the overall building structure, integration of materials and aspect of resilience.

Paper ID: 322

Exploring FORM and Visual Characteristics of 12 Jyotirlingas

Manoj Malviya (Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad) and Shiva Ji (Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad)

Abstract: Indian culture and ethos are the longest surviving one on the planet. There are in-numerous semiotic artifacts from Indian culture and traditional practices being passed since always, to this time and to the future. It is important to understand and decode them to understand the civilizational traits in this part of the world. One of the phe-nomenal existences is of Shiv lingam. There are unaccounted shiv lingams across In-dia and several other countries across the world. A Shivlinga represents the tangible form of Shiva and is being worshipped as such since time immemorial. It represents the infinite nature of lord Shiva. It represents the union of divine with nature and to-gether they are considered to originate ‘life’. Among all, the 12 Jyotirlingas depict ra-diant symbols of God Shiva and are revered as the most auspicious ones. These are spread across India at 12 different shrines which are among the most visited holy places. These are considered to originate from the infinite light pillars. The paper tries to understand the consecrate FORM of these 12 Jyotirlingas through an analysis of dimensions, shape, occurrence, etc. The dimensions and other features of Jyotirlingas were carefully observed. The knowledge about their formation was collected and put up for comparison against orders of size, shape, contour, color, texture, appearance, fitting, setting and occurrence. The result is drawn in form of a table and matched with the order of 12 Jyotirlingas as they come in Shiv Purana (Satarudra Samhita, Ch.42/2-4). It is interesting to note several similarities as well as some peculiar distinc-tions among these 12 Jyotirlingas. The place-based association was also intriguing. The size of these Jyotirlingas with respect to human scale also has relevance with their origin and nomenclature. Interesting insights about sign, semiotics and pragmat-ics have emerged with a careful observation of the 12 Jyotirlingas through this paper.

Paper ID: 325

Vocational Training Spaces for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder- an ASPECTSS- Based Design intervention

Nithya Venkataraman (National Institute of Fashion Technology) and Kudrat Kashyap (National Institute of Fashion Technology)

Abstract: Autism is a developmental disorder that leads to a characteristic pattern of perceiving, thinking and learning. It affects communication and social abilities of an individual. ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) is known as a “spectrum” because individuals can function at higher or lower ends of a continuum on an individual basis. The degree to which any one person is affected by the condition varies considerably from person to person. Hence Autism, due to its complex nature, has not been given much attention in design guidelines or in building codes.
Designing for learning and training spaces for a special community is often not just the onus, but also the soul of good design solutions. Spaces designed for individuals with autism should ideally make them sensorily comfortable. This can potentially help in the management of as many of the symptoms as could be manifestations of their sensory discomfort. Since the personal interpretation of a physical environment affects the meaning attached to it for the user, it becomes all the more important to design the built-environment for individuals with autism in order to maximise their efficiency. Individuals with ASD may experience some events as more, or less, intense than others around them; while other individuals with ASD may not seem to even notice some sensory information in certain settings. The physical structure of a space sets clear physical and visual boundaries to segment the environment so that each activity is clearly associated with a physical space. The colour, texture and acoustics of the physical space are some of the variables that affect the behaviour of an individual with ASD.
Research on adults with autism in India is scarce and hence, this study focused on the design of vocational training centres for adults with ASD. Individuals with ASD are trained in multiple vocational skills in order to obtain gainful employment. Vocational training for adults with autism currently includes craft based skills such as block printing, jewellery making, and weaving mufflers amongst others. This study employed a qualitative methodology, with an ethnographic approach. The tools used for data collection were observation, interviews and questionnaires. The study explored the possibility of applying the framework ASPECTSS™, to the space design and layout of the centres. Based on the preliminary observations, the study mainly focused on three areas under the framework, namely, Acoustics, Compartmentalisation and Escape spaces. Explorations were limited to one vocational training centre and within that centre, to the craft based section. Colour of the walls, textures of the floor and collapsible structures for compartmentalisation were some of the interventions that were suggested to the authorities in charge. Perceived improvements and changes are in line with the framework and have potential benefits not only for the trainees at the centre and their caregivers but also for the helping staff and the administration and will probably be the groundwork for welfare policies for individuals with ASD.

Paper ID: 328

Metrics for part consolidation in Design for Additive Manufacturing

Jayakrishnan Jayapal (IIITDM Kancheepuram), Senthilkumaran Kumaraguru (IIITDM Kancheepuram) and Sudhir Varadarajan (IIITDM Kancheepuram)

Abstract: Design for Additive Manufacturing (DfAM) is an emerging area of interest to recognize and exploit the benefits of the layer-by-layer manufacturing process for product development. For effective product development, the design has to be created with all the unique capabilities of the manufacturing processes. Compared to other conventional manufacturing processes, Additive Manufacturing (AM) offers relatively a high degree of design freedom to create parts which could be used for redesigning parts for optimized material usage. In addition to material efficiency and geometric freedom, AM provides an opportunity for designs to have shape, material, hierarchical and functional complexity. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) is always preferred to reduce the number of parts in the assembly to decrease the manufacturing and assembly difficulties. With the additional design freedom offered by AM process, Part Consolidation (PC) or Part Count Reduction (PCR) not only reduces the part count and simplify the product architecture but also provides a means for functional integration. The assembly level DfAM offers functional integration capabilities in addition to benefits such as cost, time and quality. By analyzing and redesigning the product at multiple levels, additional benefits can be realized. So, we introduce a two-level decision-making procedure at a product level and part level to adopt AM for developing products. At the product level, we developed a metric known as Product Adaptability Metric (PAM) to make a decision about PCR and reduce the total number of parts in the assembly to enable functional integration. In the part level, the individual part assessment is carried out with the help of Modified Complexity Factor (MCF) by using the geometry related parameters such as the volume of the part, the surface area of the part, and the height of the part, etc., to take final decision about the manufacturing process for the individual parts. We developed PAM by considering all the opportunistic design potentials of AM at a product level or system level for accurate decision making in the conceptual design stage. This developed two-level decision-making system can be further used to assess the product-process fit in the later stages of production. Two case studies have been carried out to prove the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

Paper ID: 331

Implementation of Digital Techniques Process through the Storyboard for Better Understanding in Visual Narratives

Yendrembam Suresh Singh (Department of Multimedia Communication and Design, Central Institute of Technology Kokrajhar) and Bhaskar Saha (Department of Multimedia Communication and Design, Central Institute of Technology Kokrajhar)

Abstract: Storyboard is one of the design process which includes creativity, concept and skill. Storyboard design is required in the form of drawings or illustrations for the content of animation production in the first stage of the production pipeline. It acts like a blueprint for the movies or series or animated clips and depicts the final design. In the production process, some Creative Directors, Animators have the creative skill and can visualize a concept but lacks the artistic skill of drawings to execute the storyboard. In this regard, the other team member or artist could not understand the concept of the Director. This papers focus on those people who lacks the sketching skill and provides a techniques that can be implemented to execute the concepts. For this, one survey was conducted on the Design based students studying in Central Institute of Technology Kokrajhar and Experts. This paper shows that the techniques can also meet the demand of skills through the design thoughts and the process of the methodology has given the new design technique to give a better production output for better understanding between the team members working on the project.

Paper ID: 332

Journey of product in Maker spaces - A Case Study

Ar. Arun Soman (ImaginXP, Pune) and Ar. Neha Chourasia (SNAP associates)

Abstract: India being a country of variety, there is a variety of innovative products, available and made. Here is a journey of a small product and its development with the help of different maker spaces. The interest to use bamboo as a product designer has always pushed the imagination after experiencing the material. Bamboo is a very common Material and has been a major source of living for many tribes. In Past decades, mainly south Asian countries have brought bamboo as an industrial material. Just research & development in bamboo is not enough as the world is changing rapidly. An emerging trend of design collaboration is the key to our problems. As our environment and resources are changing, it puts us into a great threat. As the technology could not grow before handed. The growth of such technology depends on research & development of materials, product and user experiences. The small-scale industry could not afford such research & development, designers, and engineers do not have labs to innovate. Thus, a makers culture brought in some revolution were in, making is more focused then designing or innovation. Making something automatically inculcates innovation based on the requirement and comfort of the product. With this maker's culture, many makers were inspired but not everyone can avail space as per their need. In India, such space might be seen especially in the art institute, but these spaces are restricted to students only. Such a concept was taken forward and some maker spaces and design spaces were evolved. The paper will have a rigorous literature and case study of a product. This product which was incepted by a makers space and went through different maker spaces till its first prototype. The further study shall include the development requirement of a makers space and survey on some other maker spaces. Post research will be examined on the need of such makers space and its boon to the society

Paper ID: 333

Design strategies enabling Industry 4.0

Vishal Ashok Wankhede (National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu) and Vinodh Sekar (National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu)

Abstract: Industry 4.0 i.e. the fourth industrial revolution drives the manufacturing industries through intelligentization and digitalization . Various industrial revolutions made a significant transformation in manufacturing industries. From Industry 1.0 to Industry 4.0, resulted in drastic industrial transformations like steam and water powered machines, electrical driven machines, automation and now digital automated manufacturing which makes production process more automatic, complicated and sustainable . Industry 4.0 defines a new stage of development and control on entire value chain of product life cycle which is focussed towards fulfilling customer requirements . The core purpose of Industry 4.0 is to fulfil the customer expectations associated with the areas like research and development, order management, recycling of products, agile delivery etc. The challenge associated with the Industry 4.0 era is the complexity of new technologies which needs to adopt by the manufacturing industries for its successful implementation. Industry 4.0 technologies includes, nine core technological pillars namely cyber physical systems (CPS), Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), Big data analytics, Additive manufacturing, Autonomous robots, Augmented reality, Simulation, Horizontal and vertical systems integration and Cloud Manufacturing. The customized products could be achieved with the help of Additive Manufacturing technology. With the context of growing digitalization, understanding the scope of design integration is necessary . The contribution of design methods in industry 4.0 facilitates innovation combining various technologies and addressing the issues associated with it. Design strategies enable the manufacturers to visualized the adoption process of Industry 4.0 and provide the solutions essential for its transition . Although there are various benefits of Industry 4.0 technologies, challenges associated with the implementation in real world cannot be ignored. Thus, there exist a need to look into some design methods or strategies leveraging to the fulfilments of Industry 4.0 requirements and its successful adoption. Design strategies like Design for six sigma (DFSS), TRIZ, QFD, Lean product development (LPD), Sustainable design, designing for agility and so on need to be studied from the context of Industry 4.0. The design strategies help to process and quality improvements, continuously improving margins and reducing waste which will smoothen the deployment of Industry 4.0 in organization. Accordingly, design strategies compatible with the Industry 4.0 need to be identified. In this context, this article aims to identify various design strategies and further analysing it by prioritizing using a suitable Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) method for successful deployment of Industry 4.0 in an automotive component manufacturing industry. The outcome from the study provides the priority order of design strategies to the decision makers or industry practitioners for the smooth adoption of Industry 4.0.

Paper ID: 334

Design-led social innovation for collaborative cities in India: An inquiry into the design for localism

Amresh Panigrahi (National Institute Of Design)

Abstract: The 20th century is evidence that is changing the way we live in India, dreaming for a better life, drives everyone to search for an urban space. The 100 smart city initiatives in India are further catalysts. The forming of cities can have a perspective, both inside out and outside in. A community's capabilities are equally important as the infrastructure system made up of products, services, and systems. Envisioning smart urban spaces in India requires a constant process of vision, a sensible execution, and a continuous discovery in our approach. The city-making process must learn the citizens to the places where they live and the action they do. New age cities must adopt social innovation to revisit their urban regeneration. Design-driven Social-innovation can create a new value system between actors and socio-material configuration. System Design thinking can be a tool for discovering the new age challenges and finding an answer with future relevance. Indian society and their socially diffused creativity can be an expression based on the local culture, a platform for action, well engaged over time to achieve a sustainable society. The rapid urbanization in India must be sensitive to recent phenomena and find a new urban development model that promotes happiness & collaboration. The 20th century can change the way we live yet gain smart India by sharing resources, quality of interpersonal relations, and the sharing of the skills that can foster mutual openness, conversation, and meaningful encounters. It can activate the local resources, knowledge, and skill of those involved in the production of the community recognized results.

Paper ID: 336

Liquid Interactions: A Conceptual Interaction Framework for Future Now

Sunil Ganesh (Cognizant Technology Solutions), Shweta Chaudhary (Cognizant Technology Solutions) and Archana Balaji (Cognizant Technology Solutions)

Abstract: Gartner predicted that by 2020, customers would manage 85% of their relationship with an enterprise, without human interactions. Here we are – more than halfway past 2020 and in times where this prediction is becoming a reality. To minimize human interactions with customers, the common (mis)perception and low-hanging fruit is the adoption of conversational technologies such as Chatbots and AI via a multitude of channels.
Brands are already cognizant that customer journeys have become dynamic, fluid, and unpredictable, as they consider usefulness, stay mindful and design for rapid changes in consumer desires. Customers tend to act on their needs of the moment - their expectations high and patience low. This new-age customer behaviour alludes to the relevance and usefulness of making interactions flow like liquids through swift, seamless, and sticky micro-moments for a unified Omni-Channel and multimodal ecosystem encompassing Online and Offline. The Framework attempts to evolve a modern layer over known popular Interaction Design Principles to support liquidity in user experience.

Paper ID: 339

Influence of Sync Sound Recording Technologies on aesthetics of voice and Sound Design in the Hindi Cinema

Hitesh Chaurasia (National Institute of Design Ahmedabad)

Abstract: Voice conveys information as well as emotion in the film. The film sound production starts with voice recording and it informs the subsequent sound design. This paper examines the influence of sync sound recording technologies on the aesthetics of voice and sound design in the Hindi cinema since 2001. In the landscape of Indian cinema with the practice of dubbing, a unique aesthetics of voice evolved, privileging the human voice over all other sounds, imbuing it with ‘God-like’ acoustic properties. However, at the turn of the millennium, one observes a shift in the pattern of sound design with the re-emergence of sync sound recording technologies in the Hindi cinema. The present paper analyzes ten case studies of Hindi films through critical listening and comparative analysis of dubbed and sync sound films between 2001 to present. Observations from the analysis reveal that sync sound recording has caused a profound shift in sound design principles within mainstream Hindi cinema conforming more closely to global sound design aesthetics of realism.

Paper ID: 341

The Cancer Positive Journey: A System Design Thinking Perspective

Alishka Shah (National Institute of Design)

Abstract: This brief paper reports on research carried out as a part of a Visual Communication Project under the Graphic Design department at National Institute of Design, India, on the underlying subject of systemic design thinking towards easing the impact and aftermath of breast cancer in three primary stages of diagnosis, treatment and recovery.
While accepting that diseases are a natural occurrence is a rather debatable subject, life-threatening or not, they have often been dealt with in a rather defensive tone. One, among the many, that are unanimously feared and even tabooed is cancer. While we often focus on the clinical aspects of the disease, we overlook the fact that they have a life-altering influence on the life of the patient and his/her caregiver.
Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer among women in the world with 2 million new cases in 2018 alone. (1) Overall, 1 in every 28 women is likely to develop Breast Cancer in her life. Let alone the daunting tone of the disease, the mind-numbing statistics and the helplessness that follows, it sets about a whirlwind of medical, physical, psychological, financial, social and sexual trauma for the person diagnosed as well as his/her supporters. The aim of the study is to assess and resolve the negative imprint of breast cancer on interpersonal relations, self-perception and social reaction by designing an effective caregiving solution and offering a healthy coping and holistic healing mechanism. It works towards inculcating positive thinking and safeguarding self-respect in the face of physical deformities and psychological stress. To eliminate the sense of powerlessness that takes over in times of an illness, It looks at offering accessible and inclusive strategies to mend and cherish relations between the caregiver and the patient during and post the journey. Personal experience in addition to undertaking primary and secondary research as a method of data collection from all target audiences involved including patients, family, medical staff and other supporting relations, the approach delivered in this project was a ‘Cancer Positive’ movement.
Cancer Positive is a collective and curative movement that makes use of data collection by adopting Internet of Things technologies to make caregiving more responsive and role-specific. Real-time data interpretation gives way to remote monitoring, telemedicine and behaviour modification, almost like having a personalized instruction manual and health coach in your pocket at all times. The database is assessed and allocated in cancer research facilities to formulate efficient modules for the training and development of healthcare professionals and caregivers. Unlike present resources, this system focuses on all-round recovery and not just survival and proposes modifications at several steps of the process right from how to address the disease itself. While technology and information have been transforming our day-to-day lifestyles, innovative usage of such mechanisms and devices can revolutionize healthcare to make it more personal, more effective and much more human.

Paper ID: 346

Design and Development of Mini Ginger Planter suitable for Hilly Region Agriculture

Thaneswer Patel (North Eastern Regional Institute of Science & Technology (NERIST), Nirjuli), Krishna Dewangan (North Eastern Regional Institute of Science & Technology (NERIST), Nirjuli), B. S. K. Chhetry (NERIST), Sarju Thokchom (NERIST) and Bishorjit Ningthoujam (CAU Imphal)

Abstract: 1.Introduction
Arunachal Pradesh is the largest state in the northeastern part of India. The topography of the region is very undulating. However, agro-climatic condition of Arunachal Pradesh is highly suitable for the cultivation of various types of horticulture fruits and spices like orange, apple, pineapple, banana, ginger, turmeric, chilly, etc. Ginger is the main cash crops of the region. Due to the lack of suitable ginger planting machine usually followed the manual method for ginger cultivation. Therefore, design and developed power operated mini ginger planter for hill agriculture which is light in weight, economical and suitable for the region. Chain and bucket metering mechanism attached with a chain is used for the planter. Two different types of cups were used for evaluation purposes such as triangular and circular. Performance of the ginger planter was evaluated at a forward speed of 0.75, 1.56 and 2.34 km/h. The performance test for planter was found satisfactorily.
2.Aim of research
The aim of the present research is to design and development a mini ginger planter suitable for the hilly region.
The mini ginger planter was conceptualized based on brainstorming on feasible solutions. Important design features such as portable, compact size, safety in operation and attachment in the existing power source were considered during the creation of this model. Chain and bucked type of seed metering mechanism were used for the planter. Power to the metering shaft was provided from the ground wheel. The seed agitating device was provided in the bottom part of the hopper to prevent from compaction of seed inside the hopper due to vibration during operation.
3.Results and Discussion
The chain and bucket type metering mechanism was tested in the laboratory to check the picking or the lifting ability of the mechanism. The mini ginger planter has one row attached with a power tiller. The planter was tested under laboratory and field conditions. The seed spacing of the developed planter was tested on the sand bed. The results show that the depth of plantation and seed spacing was not dependent on the operating speed. Percentage of seed missing decreased with an increase in the speed of operation. The following performance was observed during laboratory test:
i)Average percentage cup filling was 111%
ii)The mean missing seed was 2.5%
iii)Physical damage of the seeds – 0%
iv)Mean seed spacing was 23 cm
Similarly, the field performance was also tested for the various parameters and found satisfactory.
In the Northeastern region of India scope for using heavy machinery are limitations because of the fragmented size of landholding and topographical constraints. The ginger planting work is still carried out in the region using the manual method. The developed single row ginger planter was found suitable for small and marginal farmers. Laboratory and field test results show that planter was working satisfactorily. The farmers accept the planter for ginger planting in the fields.

Paper ID: 350

Ways of Teaching - Simulating Real Life Scenarios into 21st century Interior Design Education

Amrita Ravimohan (ISDI School of Design & Innovation)

Abstract: As a practising interior designer/ architect turned design educator, the dichotomy that exists between the sanitised atmosphere of our campuses versus the messy reality of our ‘sites’ often strikes one as anomalous. It is imperative for students to better understand real-life scenarios, but the very nature of interior design sites means that it is difficult to recreate those conditions without having the actual experience. While all design schools christen the courses in which design projects are undertaken by their students as ‘studios’ (similar to what design practices call themselves); in their present form these do not allow for several crucial issues to be addressed.
It must be understood that certain design disciplines such as Product Design, Fashion Design, and Graphic Design find it easier to simulate these conditions as the nature of their creations is of a standalone variety, whereas the proposed design of an interior space is a conception that is rooted and hence dependent on many external factors. Secondly, if a design (or even a mock-up) is to be created in three-dimension for the purposes of demonstration, similar to the prototyping method used by product designers, it requires such a high investment of resources (time, labour and money) that it becomes unfeasible.
This paper aims to investigate the ways in which students, especially those in the latter half of their undergraduate design education journey, can learn in a studio environment that accurately reflects the potential which an ongoing site holds, along with its intrinsic constraints and challenges. These include:
- Exploring the ways in which New Age technology such as Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) can bring to life certain site environments that can behave like a building shell within which budding designers can realistically experiment with various iterations of their own designs.
- Examine how various design firms where the students work as interns, can better integrate the students’ contribution into the design process. Currently, the students work on ongoing ‘live’ projects but the timelines of the project and the internships often do not align, resulting in a gap in the learning curve of the student, at a crucial juncture of their design education.
- The enhanced role of faculty who have hands-on industry experience that can greatly augment the development of this process. As per feedback received from Interior Design students, they experience the chasm between ‘theory’ and ‘practice’ greatly, especially once they step out of the cocoon of the ‘institute studio’ and into the ‘office studio’.
The wind beneath the students’ wings is the educator who encourages them to dream, experiment, make mistakes and be free of the commercial shackles that often dictate design decisions on sites. However, in order to have a complete education and become well-rounded designers, today’s design studios must better equip them with a holistic outlook of the profession, which includes the ability to recognise and acknowledge practical considerations. This, in the long run, will only improve the employability and placement prospects of the graduates of tomorrow.

Paper ID: 352

Development of Al-Cu Metal-Matrix Composite Using Powder Metallurgy Technique

Subham Kundu (Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur) and Subhas Chandra Mondal (Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur)

Abstract: Aluminium is a lightweight soft metal with moderate electrical conductivity. It is commonly used in aerospace, automotive industries as well as in day to day life. Several researchers and practitioners had worked to increase the strength of aluminium alloy by mixing some alloying elements such as Cu, Mg, Si with aluminium. The alloys are mainly prepared by stir casting and powder metallurgy techniques. Very few research works are carried out to increase the electrical conductivity of the aluminium alloy. In this paper powder metallurgy technique is applied to prepare aluminium metal matrix composite with 10%, 20% and 30% of copper weight percentage. Powder metallurgy technique is taken for proper dispersion of copper powder using ball milling process. SEM image shows the dispersion of copper with Al powder. Copper acted as binder to increase hardness when tested by Rockwell hardness tester. Densities of all three composites are measured. The significant amount of electrical conductivity is increased by increasing copper percentage. Lowest electrical resistivity is achieved for Al-30% Cu composite and highest for Al-10% Cu composite.

Paper ID: 353

Protest as Performance: the Staging of CAA protests

Neelakantan Keshavan (Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad), Saroj Boipai (Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad) and Devi Meghana Karanam (Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad)

Abstract: This paper employs a metaphoric reading of a political event of a protest from the per-spective of design and space. It does this by treating the event as a performance, thus applying the notion of staging to the real life event. Protest stagings involve expressive spatiality and visualization. Visual images from the event are examined closely to reveal various vectors at work which upset the conventional opposition between performance and life; design and emergence. The method employs aspects of staging like actors, costumes, props, devices, scripts, and dialogues to highlight the dramatic appropriation of everyday space for the sake of the event. The event creates spaces that do not otherwise exist outside the performance of democratic protest and pitches emergence against design and tactics against strategy. The widespread and intense protests that took place in India over the Citizenship Amendment Act in 2019-2020 period serve as the event under study.

Paper ID: 354

Designing a Donation Portal to Help Underprivileged Indians

Arushi Jindal (School of Design (SoD), University of Petroleum and Energy Studies (UPES), Dehradun-248007, Uttarakhand, India.) and Anirban Chowdhury (School of Design (SoD), University of Petroleum and Energy Studies (UPES), Dehradun-248007, Uttarakhand, India.)

Abstract: Introduction & background
Under privileged people don’t get enough donations in the form of cash, food or items, as people are not much aware about the problems under- privileged are facing. As they belong to below poverty line statistically they are more likely to become involved in crime. According to a report published by Govt. of India, about 12.4% of Indians are extremely poor and are below poverty line. Requirement of donation for them as per the perception of people and influence from others are the variable that influences people to donate online. Further people seek for the impact they have made on organization after the donation.
Aim & objectives
Aim is to connect the donor and non-profit organization through a web application and expected that the application can bring benefits to both parties and make the donation activity easy to be done. To achieve this goal, following objectives were considered :
1. To support orphans of different orphanages by the people who wish to contribute the children and adopting children through online
2. To Donate the money, food, clothes, other items, voluntary the charity events, pre-owned things to orphanages, under privileged schools and old age homes.
3. To provide them emotional support, so that people come to meet them and spend some time with them to make them feel happy and wanted.
By standardized questionnaire got to know donar’s demographic information, items user would more likely to donate , motivation or reason behind donation , donation frequency of user. Observational study and interviews of people were conducted in different organization with teacher’s at underprivileged schools, student, care taker of orphanage , children , care of old-age home , old people to know about the problem they are facing and their daily routine and then performed simple random sampling to prioritize the features. Therefore the preferred feature is integrated so that user can take assistance from home and donate things. To ease the process of donation we use message, email, push notification feature in the application that can help the non-profit organization, feature was built so that the donor can provide more detail on the donation and ask questions to the non-profit organizations.
Results & discussion
Result of the present study suggests that user like to donate clothes and food items more often than by donating cash. This research was exploratory, investigating the factors that influence people's willingness donate online, including the socio‐demographic characteristics of donors. Results show that gender, perception of the organization, and influence from others are variables that influence the likelihood of donating online.
Created web application is accepted by donors for providing various supports to underprivileged people. Hence, this web portal could be implemented by government or NGOs in near future to support underprivileged people.

Paper ID: 357

What can designers learn from failed solution in BOP contexts?

Pankaj Upadhyay (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati) and Ravi Mokashi Punekar (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati)

Abstract: The topic of design and development of solutions for the base of the pyramid (BOP) and similar contexts has garnered significant attention in recent litera-ture. This topic is multidisciplinary with dimensions of Business, product de-sign, supply chain, sustainability, and social development. Many contribu-tions in each of these dimensions use a case study based approach for devel-oping theories, guidelines, and heuristics. Arguably, despite explicit mention, most selected cases in these studies are included in the analysis because they are successful. Unfortunately, this may create an inadvertent sampling bias in the body of knowledge generated. Furthermore, this may be unavoidable since failed case examples, barring a few, are never reported in academic or non-academic literature. In this paper, we attempt to partially fill this lacuna by collecting and analysing six case examples that are considered and reported as failed. To do this, first, we conduct a systematic search in academic and non-academic sources to find examples of unsuccessful solutions for margin-al context. Selected cases from the list are analysed to understand why they are reported as failures. We study these cases based on a framework derived from a review of recent relevant literature. Specifically, we highlight the rec-ommended guidelines which we found in our research, which the case exam-ples followed or did not follow. Given the results, we propose some changes to the design process when designing solutions for the base of the pyramid and similar marginal context. Additionally, we discuss the implication of the study for the general mindset, which the designer must inculcate to design for the BOP effectively. The paper concludes with a discussion on the scope for future research and limitations of the presented work.

Paper ID: 358

Mental health and space

Aavrati Kushwaha (National Institute of Design , Ahmedabad) and Mayur Hajare (National Institute of Design Ahmedabad,)

Abstract: The notion of well being has been becoming a faraway reality. With evolution, the environment around us has also changed. The need to survive and the inborn nature to compete has eventually led us, humans, to achieve unattainable things. Which in turn, has made us susceptible to many of the conditions like depression and anxiety.
This project done on mental health works towards creating a space which will indirectly control our senses to enhance our moods emphatically. This will lead to the so-called empowerment of our mental health. Even though people are aware of what they should have been doing in order to achieve the state of a healthy mind. They are still incapable of doing so. Time restrictions and financial limitations are one of the important factors contributing to them largely.
This project has been done as a part of Systems design project through the case study of the students living in Kota, Rajasthan. One of the categories among the research groups which includes: Age, Occupation and Family type. The design intervention came through the research will eventually aid in achieving those little yet significant tasks/experiences which makes our well being.
Space which surrounds us from the moment we wake up till we sleep can affect our mental health immensely. The ambience, which consists of lights, colours, sound textures and aroma, indirectly signals our brain to be at a certain state of mind. The creation of a manipulative yet sympathetic environment can control the space which will include furniture and supportive systems. The design intervention to secretly and effortlessly put our minds at ease.

Paper ID: 360

Evaluation and redesign of SAP portal for university students

Yukta Sharma (School of Design (SoD), University of Petroleum and Energy Studies (UPES), Dehradun-248007, Uttarakhand, India) and Anirban Chowdhury (School of Design (SoD), University of Petroleum and Energy Studies (UPES), Dehradun-248007, Uttarakhand, India)

Abstract: 1. Introduction and background
Now-a-days many universities have a student portal which students are generally used to check their academic records like attendance, results, fees payment status etc. SAP student portal operates on enterprise resource planning system which integrates various processes into one single system. In case of student portal, it stores personal information of student and all his academic records in one database. At present SAP student portal has been implemented by many universities. However, many Indian students are not often facing problems while using such student portal. This might cause bad experience to students while using the portal.
2. Aim and objectives
This research aims to identify causes of bad experiences for the SAP student portal in ‘X’ University and resolve experience related problems using interface design intervention. Therefore, there is a chance to make the student SAP portal more user friendly.
3. Methodology
Our target audience are all Indian students of bachelors and masters programme of X university, having age group of 15-30, in which 74% are male and 26% are female. These students are from family background where annual family income varies from 8 - 20 lakhs rupees per annum. User interviews and survey were conducted to know student experience related to the SAP portal. For data collection, we used random sampling technique.
In user research we collected data on how frequency of use of the SAP portal, purpose of use of SAP portal, problems while using the portal, time taken in completing the task and willingness of using the portal if it improves.
Based on the user feedbacks, a new SAP portal was designed to resolve the issues faced by students in case of existing SAP portal for students. Then the usability of new SAP portal was compared with the existing SAP portal on the basis of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and willingness to use.
4. Results and Discussions
It was observed that most of the participants are using SAP portal for- 1) checking attendance (65%), 2) checking of exam schedule and other exam related notices (63%), 3) checking personal information and documents (60%), 4) checking timetable (55%), 5) giving faculty feedback (50%), 6) checking fees payment related information (50%).
Many students are facing problems related to- 1) organisation and management of data (65%), 2) delayed access to information (63%), and 3) Non-interactive GUI (60%).
When students are provided with new SAP portal solutions, it was observed that they perceived new SAP portal as more useful, easy to use and thereby students are willing to use the new SAP portal than the existing SAP portal.
5. Conclusion
It is envisaged that the newly designed SAP portal might be helpful for university students for timely and easily access to important information and fees payment.

Paper ID: 361

LinkedIn Student: An extension of LinkedIn designed for college students to enhance their Job-hunting experience

Paromita Loha (School of Design (SoD), University of Petroleum and Energy Studies (UPES), Dehrdun-248007, India.) and Anirban Chowdhury (School of Design (SoD), University of Petroleum and Energy Studies (UPES), Dehrdun-248007, India.)

Students often are aware of the need to network professionally, but don’t always know how to start. Profile building, tracking invitations, profile views are other barriers. Currently, job or internship search for freshers (students) is difficult in LinkedIn as there is no specific search option for the same. Moreover, tracking of application and interview status are not available in LinkedIn. Therefore, students might not able to track their job or internship status easily.
The objectives of this study were to make LinkedIn into a productive application for college going students to accelerate their job or internship hunting process within their own professional circle and provide an effective interface design solution to overcome problems related to job or internship search in current LinkedIn.
Both Qualitative (interview) and Quantitative (user survey) approach was used to identify the hindrances and motives of college students with respect to LinkedIn usage for job or internship search. User journey map and empathy mapping were done based on responses collected through user interview. After that user surveys were conducted with 15 structured questions and data was collected through simple random sampling. Target Group were college students; ages ranging from 18-28 years old of which 40% were females and 60% were males. Undergraduate and postgraduate students from fields like Design, Architecture, Computer Science were chosen for the survey. Then an extended LinkedIn interface was designed with additional features such as profile building template, profile statistics, and job or internship filters etc. based on problems stated by users. The effectiveness of the design was tested through usability testing and compared with the existing LinkedIn on the basis of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and willingness to use.
From interview responses and user survey, it was witnessed that students faced difficulty in keeping track of company HR’s and their emails and contact details, require filters during Job search etc. The redesigned interface helps cutdown the time taken for job/internship search. Tasks are easily performed regarding profile hunt, contacting senior professionals and handling multiple data due to Profile Statistics. As per the User Testing conducted on 30 individuals, the Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness is higher for the redesigned interface as compared to the existing application. Customer Acceptance model indicates that the satisfaction bar is higher within the individuals.
LinkedIn Students aids college graduates to search for jobs or internships that could be a best fit. Therefore, a redesign of LinkedIn (Students) would be beneficial for students.

Paper ID: 362

Ethnography as a tool to study indigenous Craft Clusters to build cultural sensitivity and inclusivity amongst design students

Lavina Nimba Bhaskar (National Institute of Fashion Technology)

Abstract: The narrative of traditional Indian Craft and traditional Textile is woven tightly with sub-continent’s culture. These indigenous crafts and traditional textiles in India are clustered in small weaver communities or tucked away in rural artisan pockets far from the urban settlements. These craft cluster communities make artisanal handmade products for unchanged rural, massy urban and niche luxury markets.
Spradley (1979) defines, Ethnography as the work of describing a culture from the native point of view. Ethnography in that sense, in this study, bridges the rural and urban divide to understand indigenous art, craft and the people in them.
This paper describes ethnographic research methods that are used as a way of studying different indigenous Indian art and craft forms, and the craft communities who make these artisanal products. Enlarges how design students co-create and innovate design solutions in the textile and craft sector. And within these inter-cultural exchanges and interactions, students learn the life lessons of being culturally sensitive.
Through an extensive review of existing literature, decade long ethnographic studies in various craft-clusters through out India (conducted in past by the author), and semi-structured interviews with the students, the study aims to answer the core questions of the research with an objective of perhaps finding more harmonious and inclusive societies.

Paper ID: 365

Exploring the OSH scenario in Floating Solar PV projects in India and opportunities for ergonomics design interventions

Abhijit Sen (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Guwahati, Guwahati- 781039, Assam, India) and Sougata Karmakar (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Guwahati Guwahati- 781039, Assam, India)

Abstract: The renewable energy industry is seeing exponential growth in India. Among the many clean energy sources, floating solar PV (FPV) projects are being preferred because of its many advantages. The installation and maintenance of FPV panels are generally been executed by an informal and inexperienced/semi-skilled work-force who are exposed to the emerging challenges, which may lead to compro-mising of Occupational Safety & Health (OSH) aspects. To explore the ground scenario, field surveys were carried out to study the OSH scenario which re-vealed that the workers are highly exposed to different occupational hazards dur-ing installation and maintenance of FPV panels due to heavy load handling, awkward postures, inappropriate tools, lack of safety measures against the harsh working environment (hot Sun, electrocution, drowning, etc.), lack of specific training/skill-development, etc. Project managers agreed that immediate attention is required for the safety and better occupational health of the workers and felt the need for protecting the workers from the hazards especially through design inter-ventions. This study is a maiden effort in understanding the OSH aspects in the emerging FPV sector in India and establishes an information gap, which is pro-posed to be addressed through suitable ergonomics design solutions.

Paper ID: 370

How real is virtual reality - An immersion, interaction and embodiedness study

Deepak Ranjan Padhi (Indian Institute of Technology Bombay) and Sugandha Katoch (Indian Institute of Technology Bombay)

Abstract: In the past few years, virtual reality (“VR”) has been explored as a potential medium that provides immersive experiences. VR features are being evolved for active engagement. However, there is a lot of scope in researching how the VR experience varies across demographics. For example, how does an emergent user (education below 10th standard, hardly exposed to Information and Communication Technologies, or “ICTs”) experience VR in comparison to a tech-savvy user (graduate, highly exposed to ICTs)? We performed mixed-method research with two experiments using mobile VR headsets. Experiment-1 was conducted to study the \"immersion\" effect by asking the participants to watch a virtual “roller coaster” ride video. Experiment-2 was conducted to gauge the effect of \"embodiedness\" and the “embodied interaction” with the medium. Here, the participants were asked to play the “Moon Bird” VR game, while moving their hands like a bird's wings. Qualitative and quantitative results were compared across the two user groups. Neither had experienced VR before. We found that emergent users got engaged better than tech-savvy users when there is only a perception of the virtual environment (experiment-1). Hand movements acted as a cognitive load for emergent users (experiment-2) in the beginning, but eventually, most expressed themselves as the game character. On the other hand, tech-savvy users possessed a strong distinction between the virtual and real environment but were found to be more engaged when they could interact with the virtual environment, rather than just perceive it. We discuss the findings and provide recommendations for future studies.

Paper ID: 371

A process to understand products in terms of Design elements using linkographs

Ravi Lingannavar (KLEDr.MSSCET) and Pradeep Yammiyavar (IIT Guwahati)

Abstract: A product undergoes through a sequential process from design stage to development. The design elements and utilitarian aspects of the product need to be taken into consideration while developing /designing. As designers thought processes are converted into sketches, one has to have good knowledge on the basic elements of design. Function, Aesthetics, Ergonomics, and Usability constitutes the broad elements of design. Each design will have sub parameters, which designers need to prioritize and give more emphasis to those elements in particular. Linkographs will help in identifying the spaces, where a product can be value added to make it innovative. For all the identified design elements along with sub parameters, linkographs have been plotted by taking a design case study. This approach shall emphasize on value parameters while designing the product and shall serve as a template for reference. Value addition can be evaluated in terms of design elements via the developed linkographs.

Paper ID: 374

Recreating the past methodology to design a better society for the future

Natasha Turkar (National Institute of Fashion Technology, Mumbai)

Abstract: With the omnipresence of design, our future is a visualization of further convergence of the world with technology as its nucleus. Professionals across all disciplines have been envisioning a future dependent on technology, where Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things (IoT), and Big data form a multifaceted design universe. However, this paper challenges the notion of the future design methodology relying heavily on technological advancements and proposes the question of how design can borrow from the past and harness the power of reflective nostalgia to build a better society in the future. The research discusses the plausibility of design creativity and synthesis coming a full circle - being driven by societal necessity in the past, customized user-centric exclusivity in the present to its reliance on empathy, reassurance, and security on a social level, in the future. The research methodology and study conducted has been summarized to highlight how any product we have designed, became a part of an environment larger than us, taking up an intangible behavioral form, which came back to redesign us. Thus, reflecting on this past methodology and taking the traditional wisdom forward is paramount. The directions for further research have also been discussed.

Paper ID: 375

Struggling Through Mid-Life Crisis

Isha Patel (ISDI Mumbai). Designing Brand-Led Cultures in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SME’s)

Abstract: Small and medium-sized enterprises are engines of employment and innova-tion, contributing to 95% of businesses in most countries. The world of brand-ing is dominated by large businesses, but there exists a lack of SME perspec-tive on the subject (Krake 2005); (Berthon, Ewing and Napoli 2008); (Wong & Merrilees, 2005). This study investigates into challenges of SMEs that limit their understanding and use of brand-led strategies and states how SMEs can use their own brand to enhance longevity and sustenance for their companies. It will therefore benefit SMEs across the globe, irrespective of what sector they belong to. As observed, SMEs have successfully challenged large corporations by developing market-focused brands in the last decade. The UK Design Council has also noted that SMEs adopting a design-led approach are more successful than those who do not. It therefore becomes essential to identify the challenges and overcome them through further research. This research follows a qualitative approach and expresses a metaphorical relation between humans and SME brands. Brands are personified and their life cycle is illustrated. SME struggles are compared to midlife crisis in the human life cycle. It can be said that SMEs are in the same ambiguous state of mind as humans facing the ad-vent of midlife crisis. The recommendations made in this study will equip SME leaders to understand their organization from a grassroots level and bene-fit through development of a brand-led culture within their organization, mak-ing them competitive through strategic use of their own brand. This study is attending to identify a much larger gap in the industry, raising a conversation that has potential for further research.

Paper ID: 377

Game based learning for the awareness of culture and tradition - an exploratory case study on the indigenous Naga tribes of Northeast India

Susmita Roy (Central Institute of Technology Kokrajhar), Dr. Pankaj Pratap Singh (Central Institute of Technology Kokrajhar) and Abhijit Padun (Central Institute of Technology Kokrajhar)

Abstract: Across generations game has always been a pleasurable part of human life. People have spent plenty of time at once playing various games in different environments from playground to digital console and now to the smartphone apps. The recent trend of gamification technique engages learners from various domains on their concern area very efficiently. This technique focuses on taking game play elements and game mechanics in a non-gaming settings or context, making it interesting and more engaging for the learner. Digital games when designed to share indigenous viewpoint can prompt insightful discussions that can go far beyond a game play session.
This paper is an attempt to put forward a conceptual framework of a player-centered-game design, exploring the indigenousness of Naga tribe of Northeast India. Most of the tribes of Northeast India do not possess a written script of their own but they survived through tales of their legends, myths, customs and beliefs by oral tradition from one generation to another. This oral tradition also existed as part of Naga culture where their cultural values and beliefs were transmitted by the elder members to their younger generation in their ancient traditional dormitory called “Morung”.
With the advent of globalization and modernization, this traditional youth centric dormitory system was replaced with modern schools and colleges. Though it was a healthy replacement but it led to the shunning of their traditional dormitory system constricting their cultural value sharing possibilities between generations. The ongoing loss of customs, traditions and other aspects of their culture has led to a situation of high risk of losing their cultural values forever.
This case study is a novel approach of spreading awareness among the new generation of Naga tribe towards the necessity of acknowledgement, restoration, revival and preservation of their age old culture and beliefs. The proposed conceptual game tries to create an effective environment through game-based learning where young generation can practice the real life situations and challenges in the form of role-play as “The Saviour”, making choices to safeguard and restore the lost customs and traditions in a fictional settings. The game’s effective story-line based on the indigenous Naga tribe will try to motivate the core drive of new generations to make them realize the authenticity, need of empowerment, significance and ownership of their customs and traditions. To evaluate the acceptance and authenticity of the content of the conceptual game, a survey was carried out within a small group of Naga people. The positive response and acceptance and their comfort towards the virtual world have created the possibility to proceed a step further towards the development of the conceptual game.
Further this game-based learning experiment also tries to explore the scope of archiving the cultural heritage of Naga tribes through intervention of digital technology with more advanced approaches.

Paper ID: 380

Our Machines

Louise Colbourne (University of Brighton)

Abstract: ‘Our Machines are disturbingly lively whilst we ourselves frighteningly inert’
Donna Haraway (1991)
This paper is part of a body of work which includes exhibitions, events and a symposium. The aim of the project is to look at the relationship between technology and the pioneering work of artists and designers. Our Machines includes a wide range of cross-discipline and inter-generational works that reflect on the role art and design has on humanising technology as much as it questions the notion of limit-less progress or that references to the natural world are fast disappearing. The artists and designers are far from ‘inert’ in their exploration and sometimes exploitation of new technology. Most of the works included are time-based media, which by definition are illusionary and non-existent, yet instrumental in asking the viewer to question a world where multiple views show reality in a state of flux. For this paper the focus will be on specific examples of work that in their installation offer experiential, interactive, immersive and generative interactions. Our relationship with machines has evolved and in the age of the anthropocene how much does our corporeal relationship with technology negate our desire to be immersed in the natural world?
Looking at interactivity within space, place and spirituality and the relation these have to new technology historically, which we can image a future. The arts are often at the forefront of new experiential epochs, testing and challenging our human relationship to new technologies: slapstick within the early cinematic experience was one of heightened audience engagement; early design theorists strove towards a utopian future where technology would create social change for the better; analogue processes although superseded by digital technology are systematically re-appropriated; the body dissolves within in a virtual platform where freedom from the real can proliferate; early video tape technology offered a voice to those who were formerly unable to gain access to film processes; the introduction of the Apple Mac computer gave designers new freedoms to explore post-modern expressive and radical messages; AI and generative processes mean that we, as audience can affect the magic of creation with our touch, or look on as the work creates itself.
History tells us much about the future of technology affirming many of the systems of change we are dealing with now and shall do even more so in the future. The romanticism of nature was replaced by the magic of technology in the industrial age. These moments in history made for spiritual shifts as much as they heralded a practical force for change. In an era where machine learning and generative processes are becoming the normative practices of interactive design, this evolution becomes as much of a grand utopian gesture as it does a passive extension of the human experience; perhaps reinforcing our creative powers by amputating our natural ones. Artists and designers continue to explore new digital territories and whilst doing so even are more aware of the need to reinvigorate a ‘cyborg manifesto’ for the future.

Paper ID: 381

Design, Additive Manufacturing and Application of Patient-Customized Orbital Implants

Samrat Sagar (Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay), Srivalli Shrikanth (Mahatma Gandhi Mission Dental College and Hospital, Navi Mumbai), Suraj Naik (Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay), Bhanupratap Gaur (Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay), Suryawanshi Chetana M. (Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay), Shehbaz Ali Syed (Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay), Burhanuddin Khambati (Mahatma Gandhi Mission Dental College and Hospital, Navi Mumbai), Rupesh Ghyar (Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay) and Ravi Bhallamudi (Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay)

Abstract: Eye orbital floor fracture is a common occurrence due to traumatic eye injuries during contact sports, motor vehicle accidents or impact by blunt objects. Another cause is sudden increase in intra-orbital pressure. The consequences include orbital volume ex-pansion, double vision or loss of vision in severe cases. Owing to the complex orbital anatomy, such fractures are very difficult to manage. In case of large orbital floor frac-ture, surgical repair or reconstruction is carried out using implants to restore the orbit and its volume. Standard titanium implants used for this purpose are flat in shape and require manual bending. The manual process is not precise, and causes non-conformity of the implant surface with orbital floor and lifting of the implant at posterior end, giv-ing unsatisfactory outcomes.
This research aims at design and fabrication of orbital implants that are customized to the patient’s anatomy. This implies matching the prominent ‘S-shape’ of the orbital floor, starting from the rim and extending up to inferior orbital fissure. The design starts with the generation of 3D anatomical model from DICOM (Digital Imaging and Com-munications in Medicine) files obtained from the CT (Computed Tomography) scan of the patient. The generated 3D model is then used to design a customized orbital implant using medical CAD software, ensuring that the degree of freedom of the eye is main-tained. Considering the free-form shape of the designed implant, it is additively manu-factured on DMLS (Direct Metal Laser Sintering) system using Titanium- (6%) Alumini-um- (4%) Vanadium ELI (extra low interstitial) powder. After post-processing and steri-lization of the fabricated implant, it was surgically implanted in the patient. The post-operative CT images revealed that customized implant was conformed to the S-shaped orbital floor, thereby providing the required stability to the implant. The orbital volume was also restored to the normal value, thus correctly aligning the affected eye with the normal eye.

Paper ID: 382

Understanding Bodo Identity in their Handlooms

Maneswar Brahma (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati) and Utpal Barua (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati)

Abstract: According to S. Endle, the Bodos are one the largest ethnic communities among the Indo-Mongoloid origin of Tibet o Burmese language family and the largest single speaking ethnic community in North-east India.
The community has significant traditions of visual culture, particularly of wood carving, hand loom and textile, craft works, horticulture and folklore. The community also had wide knowledge in weaving garments from grasses, fibers and cotton, what they grew from silk, both wild and domesticated. It is significant that the silk of sericulture was introduced in North Eastern India, many centuries before the arrival of Vedic Aryans by the ancestors of Bodos (S. Endle,1997).
Spinning of Endi yarn and weaving is household industry and every woman of the community is skillful enough to express in the finer art of hand loom craftsmanship. However, the new generation of the Bodo community rarely follows the ancient cultural practices due to lack of preservation, documentation and research of about the Art and Artifacts of this community.
“Considerable amount of changes has taken place in the dress outfits not only the male section but the female section as well. Similarly, the art of dying yarn and cloths which was a community secret of the tribe is gradually fading out” (“Tribe of Assam Part- I” by B.N.Bordoloi, G.C.Sharman and M.C. Saikia).
This paper evolves from the research gap through a critical review of the limited literature available in the field of Bodo hand loom and understanding of the design philosophy in Bodo culture.

Paper ID: 383

MCDM Based Decision Support System for Product Design and Development

Prabhat Kumar (National Institute of Fashion Technology Bhopal) and Ayan Tiwari (National Institute of Fashion Technology Bhopal)

Abstract: The process of product design and development (PDD) consists of various sequential stages. Each stage requires a complex evaluation and the right decision to attain a successful product. Decision-making in these product design stages often is involved with multiple criteria and it is important to use multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) to assist design practitioners for more appropriate decisions. Nowadays, various MCDM methods are available and applied in various areas. The objective of this paper is to identify the types of decision-making problems that may creep during different design stages and possible MCDM methods that might be applicable to solve them. This paper presents comparative analysis and gives information about some of the most popular MCDM methods with the design decision applications as per the available literature. This knowledge can help enterprises make better decisions in a particular design stage to ensure the success of their PDD.

Paper ID: 385

Perceived slip-resistance of Flooring

Neelima Gudavalli (ICFAI Foundation for Higher Education) and Phanisree Vagvala (JNAFA University)

Abstract: The study aims to understand the factors that influence perceptions of elderly persons about flooring slipperiness and to observe if there is a difference between the perceived slip-resistance (PSR) and the measured slip-resistance (MSR) of flooring in residential environments of elderly peo-ple.
Methods: 262 flooring samples in residences of 48 elderly persons living independently in communities participated in the study. ASM 925 DCOF slip meter was used to measure MSR. PSR was assessed with a semi-structured questionnaire. Mann Whitney U test was performed for testing difference between MSR and PSR.
Conclusions: The study concluded that the influencing factors for MSR and PSR were not similar. Measured slip resistance was concerned with factors related to the environment. PSR in addition to the environmental factors, was found to be influenced by individual’s sensory and psychological factors which were rarely considered by MSR assessments.

Paper ID: 386

THINK LAB : An initiative to foster creative and critical thinking skills amongst first year design students

Prachi Mittal (Teamwork Education Foundation)

Abstract: Synonymous with imagination and reasoning, creative and critical thinking used together increases the possibility of desirable outcomes in situations requiring problem-solving, a prime function of design. Teaching creativity and criticality appears to be an inevitable task in design education. However, it is often assumed that learners will gain these thinking skills tacitly as a by-product of certain course content delivery that focuses on conceptual or factual knowledge, and technical skill development, for the creative disciplines. This paper examines the effectiveness of “Think Lab”, a domain-specific, experimental learning module, that aims to develop the creative and critical thinking potential of Foundation (first) year undergraduate students of design. Drawing from the work of creativity experts Edward De Bono and Michael Michalko, amongst a few others, Think Lab equips students with formal tools, techniques and strategies for creative and critical thinking. It takes a constructivist approach to learning-teaching, strategically combining the tenets of experiential learning theory and collaborative learning. Primary data has been collected from three batches of students who attended Think Lab, to investigate the appropriateness of the content (what is taught) as well as the effectiveness of the learning-teaching methodology (how it is taught), in context of their future design learning and practice

Paper ID: 388

Reconstruction of Vanishing Indigenous Cultural Threads of Naamghars in Assam

Dr. Charu Monga (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati) and Prof. Dr. Amarendra Kumar Das (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati)

Abstract: Rapid modernization taking place in the 21st century especially in developing countries like India having multiple religious faiths has seen major changes in social, economic and environmental aspects. With these rapid changes, a major concern and challenge is to retain identity of socio-cultural institutions found in India. Design details of architecture and assets used in these institutions with religious/social significance are hence, an important feature, which reveals the indigenous identity of these institutions. This paper, focuses on understanding and documentation of the identity of “Naamghar”, a social-cultural institution associated with Vaishnavism found in Assam so that the essence of it as identity of Vaishnavism can be institutionalized to facilitate translating it for Naamghar to be established in future. It focuses on three major aspects of indigenous identity of Naamghar: Visual design details of the exterior and interior of a Naamghar, Relation of design details with Vaishnava faith, and Spatial and temporal evolution of Naamghar. This paper unfolds the evidence based research and results towards structured design approach through form study with typicality analysis in Naamghar of urbanizing Assam and its fragmented areas in different parts. This paper discusses and shows systematic way and how a unique identity has been transformed over the period of time in main gate and doors of Naamghars.

Paper ID: 390

Campaign design to nudge men in order to reduce the crime rate against women

Upasna Sehji (IIT Guwahati) and Sharmistha Banerjee (IIT Guwahati)

Abstract: Incidents like groping, eve-teasing, etc are becoming common in public spaces of cities like Delhi. Females are not able to defend themselves in these situations due to varies reasons. The research was conducted with the objective to understand what can be done for females in order to protect them.
The results of the research emphasized the direction of awareness amongst offenders. It was also revealed that current self-defense solutions are not readily accepted by most of the Indian females.
After considering the psychology of both Male and female through surveys and literature review, Social nudge was taken as a concept to design the campaign graphics in the public spaces. Graphic concepts were created to tap into the offender’s mind by redirecting the flow of thoughts while in public space.

Paper ID: 393

Photoluminescent pigment printed textiles: Designing urban homes for nighttime navigation

Richa Sharma (National Institute of Fashion Technology, Bengaluru) and Nilanjana Bairagi (National Institute of Fashion Technology, Bengaluru)

Abstract: The abundance of light in the urban nightscapes is responsible for beyond visual effects on humans as it may affect the circadian cycle thus affecting the anxiety and sleep related disorders. Photoluminescent pigments are rare earth metals that absorb light and emit it slowly as a pale blue/bluish green light over 6-8 hours after initial excitation from external light source. These pigments can be incorporated in textiles in many ways such as filaments, coatings, tapes, vinyl stickers or printing with suitable binders. But there is limited literature to guide textile and fashion designers on how these pigments may be used to create novel illuminated patterns of luminescence as prints for home fashion. Moreover, systematic studies on the possible design effects that can be achieved on fabrics while printing with photoluminescent prints has not been reported in literature. Therefore this research aims to systematically study the properties of photoluminescent pigments and develop design concepts on textiles for home fashion using user centric design research.
The experimental research elaborates that the luminosity of light emitted by the photoluminescent pigments as textile pigment prints depends on particle size, concentration and the texture of the fabric. The intensity of luminosity is recorded below 1lux which is comparable to natural starlight or moonlight. The experimental findings are correlated with the user perception study in the real nighttime environment, where it was established that the human eye can perceive the luminosity of the photoluminescent prints at intensity lower than 1 lux, lower than 5% concentration irrespective of the particle size. Similar studies were conducted with the elderly in their home setting, to study visual perception of these prints on home textiles. The user trials indicated that the photoluminescent pigment printed textiles could provide navigation aids and focus lighting for elderly care in the areas of orientation lighting, edge definition and also sleep indicators. It was observed that the smaller particle size (10-15 µm) of photoluminescent prints may be used for edge definition and path lighting. The larger particle size (50-60µm) due to its to longer decay profile may be used for the purpose of nightlight.
The study also provides valuable inputs on the design parameters that would be suitable to develop prints with clarity for use in nighttime environment. The study indicates that the textile products in home fashion may be designed that improve the light cognition not only for the elderly but for all age groups and demographics using photoluminescent pigment textiles. Thereby introducing alternate methods of light sources that promote natural nightlight so as to create a paradigm shift in the way lighting design is perceived by designers and architects.

Paper ID: 394

Guidelines to Design Custom 3D Printed Jig for Orthopedic Surgery

Shehbaz Ali Syed (IIT Bombay), Bhanupratap Gaur (IIT Bombay), Samrat Sagar (IIT Bombay), Suryawanshi Chetana M. (IIT Bombay), Suraj Naik (IIT Bombay), Burhan Khambati (Mahatma Gandhi Mission Dental College and Hospital, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai), Srivalli Natrajan (Mahatma Gandhi Mission Dental College and Hospital, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai), Rupesh Ghyar (IIT Bombay) and Ravi Bhallamudi (IIT Bombay)

Abstract: In osteo-sarcoma (bone cancer) one of the major challenges for the surgeon is to resect the bone tumour with a margin that is oncologically safe and then reconstruct the defect gap to original anatomical shape and size necessary for proper function. It is very difficult to carry out resections in complex anatomical regions such as pelvis or joints. To ensure good alignment and fixation of patient-customized prosthesis, the bone cut must be accurate and match the geometry of such prosthesis. Proper resection and implant fixation can be achieved by using patient-customized surgical jigs, which guides the surgical tool. This work deals with the design, fabrication and application of orthopaedic surgery jigs.
The stating point is the CT scan image set of the patient, which are converted to a 3D CAD model using a medical modelling software. The customized jigs are designed over the 3D model of patient’s anatomy. There are however, no well-established design guidelines and standards for creating and verifying such jigs. This makes the task challenging to someone inexperienced in medicine and manufacturing. This was addressed by evolving a systematic process for patient-customized surgical jigs.
Depending upon the function, the customized jigs are classified as drilling jigs, osteotomy jigs and implant location jigs. For each type, essential element or module that need be provided have been identified. For example, osteotomy guide includes the surface that is conformal to bone, k-wire or other fixation, and the overhanging handle or the curved shaped beam that connects the two parts. Relevant design guidelines were developed.
A standard CAD model was developed for each key element. Their shape and dimensions were fixed considering the strength and ease of use. For example, the minimum thickness of the cutting guides was 5 mm to take care of bending. The jig surface that is in contact with the bone was set at 3 mm. The k-wire size was 1.6 mm. Special care was taken to eliminate sharp edges. The full jig is developed by incorporating these elements, making the process faster and reducing random customization that can increase manufacturing cost. The proposed methodology and design guidelines are illustrated with cases of pelvis and tibia surgery jigs, which were validated by the surgeon and proved to be beneficial.

Paper ID: 399

Design Guidelines considering the need for Accessibility

Poornima Kapoor (IndiaMART). Mobile User Experience (UX)

Abstract: A growing share of the population is using mobile devices for communication, content snacking, and to an extent computing. These extremely portable devices have become almost ubiquitous. They are everywhere. A rapid rise in cross and multi-device ownership is being seen. With this advent of smartphones and other handheld devices it has become essential for us as designers to make our websites and applications available and usable to as many people as possible. We traditionally however choose to neglect people who are challenged from our primary user groups until it is an explicit requirement. This research aims to build accessibility design thinking into the UX process, guided by a model of ‘Inclusive Design’. This design research helps understand and establish the nitigrities of the environment, pain points, needs, and requirements of a challenged user. It aims to make it easier to design applications by eliminating the need to re-visit challenges by proposing a set of guidelines that can be used to improve user experience altogether. These guidelines have been established by using traditional research methods including ‘expert interviews’ with professionals, a study of literature, data analysis, interviews with challenged users, as well as usability testing along with modern-day Design sprint technique to solve problems and test new ideas in a short time. Guidelines proposed at the end of this research by understanding the need for accessibility in UX design tied together with visual design will be of interest to designers, students, and academicians, all alike.

Paper ID: 407

A Thematic Analysis of Graffiti in Urban Spaces by using Indic Scripts for Experiments and Exploration for Academic Educational Project. Subtitle: Experimenting with Indic scripts as 'form' culture to speculative education

Siddhesh Shirsekar (Srishti Institute of Art, Design and Technology)

Abstract: abs:
\"There is no expression without excitement, without turmoil\"- Dewey. J
The present study positions research to analyze and attempt to experiment with Indic scripts with academic typography students. A thematic analysis of the graffiti used to investigate a script on a superficial surface. As a single lifetime is barely enough to explore one script fully, especially since each one is so deeply rooted in a particular historical and cultural context. Many children are growing up in diverse bilingual or multilingual contexts and learn to speak and read in more than one language. India, home to vivid and beautiful scripts in urban spaces is one of the most ideal environments to study and practice type design. There has been a rich heritage of manuscripts, calligraphy, letterpress and other aspects of letter design. The hand-painted tradition that still vibrantly lives on in many parts of the country is an institution in itself. After the advent of digital fonts however one ceases to see the same burst of freshness and variety that these anonymous hands create nationwide.
As designers we are aware of our surroundings, things make a lot of sense to us as we always try to find meaning out of everything that we come across. Typography is one such thing that we are surrounded with, in today's world.
The academic project deliberated here demonstrates how the scripts chosen from various sources. Sometimes they are taken from printed material, such as existing graffiti styles, newspapers, advertisements and labels. Indic script can be treated as art form towards unconventional approach and without conscious reasoning. Following a pattern and converting existing graffiti writing and incorporate size, color, texture and lettering aspect in an Indic script to get groundbreaking layouts.
The output of the research shall be a system design being an academician to foster a wholesome learning environment for Indic scripts. The conference could itself be an opportunity to discuss possibilities and encourage design students in this endeavor.
Graffiti is discourse, art, and visual culture. It is a handmade, homemade, imprint upon the built environment. Graffiti is, first and foremost, ephemeral: its extreme and explicit temporariness is inherent in both its creation and its consumption. Graffiti brings the language of visual culture to the surfaces of built and natural environments, mediating the ways we see where we are, imprinting brick, steel, and mortar with color, script, and shade. Graffiti plays with the simultaneous gestures of representation and erasure, legibility and illegibility, authorship and anonymity. However, we define it, has seeped from its own domain into other realms: from the streets into the gallery, when we take graffiti seriously as teachers, we use a range of overlapping perspectives through which we and our students can engage with popular culture. India land of masses weather street or contemporary will always deliver unexpected fallouts. Working in groups, whether intra or interdisciplinary, is above all recognized for its capacity to unlock creative potential, to promote the unexpected.

Paper ID: 409

CREATED METHOD: Pedagogical Approach for Diversity in Creative Design Process

Dr. Charu Monga (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati) and Prof. Iko Avital (SCE Sami Shamoon College of Engineering, ISRAEL)

Abstract: The principal objective of this paper is to demonstrate the capability with creativity and innovation to develop ideas for technology driven students. The method is examined with undergraduate also graduate design and engineering students at various aspects with step-by-step progressive process. The paper describe 21st century design education as a creative method focused on innovation for society and industry. One that combines mass wisdom and talents in multidisciplinary fields through advanced digital technology. A virtual studio was proposed that contains a number of teams exploring a topic, studying it, ideating and designing innovative products. Each team is comprised of different areas of knowledge: product design, mechanical engineering, graphic design, architecture, art, animation and more - with students graduating first, second and third. A joint online project \"Innovation in Project Design \", using a synergistic studio method called CREATED was developed. Multidisciplinary teams (Israel, India, Australia) are challenged in projects of social importance to partners. The teaching method relates to a synchronous virtual environment, where the teams interact and learn at the same time, and also asynchronously, where they plan and respond at different times. The purpose of the joint course is to learn to work in global teams, as well as to create and design innovative products within the limitations and barriers of geography (Australia, India, Israel), different time zones, cultural and demographic backgrounds, in a team of diverse learning disciplines. (Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Design, Architecture, Animation, Visual Communication, Art, Marketing). This case study research, along recent five years, will present lot of design processes and final projects. This course challenges students on several levels: How to create in team framework? How to design together? Different professional field? Geographical distance, wide time zone, syllabus gap and academic schedule, gap of knowledge and talents. CREATED method follows pedagogical approach to advance innovation in design that focuses on cultivating creative thinking, among small groups of individuals with diverse skills, talents and personal/cultural background.

Paper ID: 412

Design and Prototyping of a Novel Head-Mounted Ophthalmic Device for Monitoring Glaucoma

Arvind Bhallamudi (Symbiosis Institute of Technology) and Nitin Khedkar (Symbiosis Institute of Technology)

Abstract: abs: Glaucoma is an eye disease leading to progressive loss of vision. It can be detected and monitored by measuring the intraocular pressure (IOP). Conventional tonometers used for this purpose are cumbersome (require qualified ophthalmologists) and invasive (uncomfortable for the patients). In this work, a novel portable instrument for IOP measurement was developed, based on a combination of indentation and applanation principles. It employs a three-axis slider system mounted on headgear for accurate and rapid positioning of an indenter assembly over the eyelid. The assembly comprises an indenter, adjustment compartment and knob. The compartment also houses a spring, force-sensitive resistor, and printed circuit board to check the IOP after applanation. The corresponding reaction force from the eye is obtained on a force-sensing resistor using Imbert-Fick’s principle. This activates an LED signal for high levels of IOP that indicate a risk of glaucoma. The main components of the device were prototyped through 3D printing in ABS plastic. The device provides an efficient way to accurately position it over the eye for different face structures and varying eye positions among patients. It also allows sliding the instrument along a horizontal rail to conveniently check both eyes in the same setting. The proposed innovation can be used by healthcare workers to screen Glaucoma patients in rural medical camps. It can also be used at home for regular check-up by patients themselves and take suitable precautionary measures.

Paper ID: 416

A qualitative study of global design practices to build directions and opportunities for Indian social design

Tanishqa Bobde (USID Foundation) and Raman Saxena (USID Foundation)

Abstract: The design industry including design knowledge and practice is constantly evolving itself to fulfil the evolving needs of society in order to deliver a larger social impact. Social design is a field that stresses the positioning, responsibility and collective societal impact of designers and designed products. The underdeveloped and developing world can benefit largely from social design interventions. India is a developing country with social problems like poverty and poor healthcare - giving a large scope for social design work. However, major development of social design is limited to other countries. A qualitative study was conducted with 14 global design practitioners to understand the social design theory, knowledge and practice existing globally and identify directions and opportunities for the Indian context, by using a cultural lens. The study suggests creating open dialogue, simplifying vocabulary, bias-busting, fostering cross-cultural social design and encouraging mindfulness as the main opportunities. These opportunities can be applied both in social design practice and design education.

Paper ID: 418

A QFD approach for selection of Design for Logistics strategies

Mahadharsan Ravichandran (School of Mechanical Engineering, VIT University, Tamil Nadu, India), Vimal Kek (Department of Mechanical Engineering, NIT Patna, Bihar, India), Jayakrishna Kandasamy (VIT University) and Asela Kulatunga (Department of Manufacturing & Industrial Engineering Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Srilanka)

Abstract: Designing products considering transportation costs and improved customer service in the field of supply chain management is termed as Design for logistics. By improving the design of the products for logistics, organizations can reduce the cost spend on transportation and delivery. Some of the important factors of adopting design for logistics are ease of transportation, ease of packaging, ease of loading /unloading, minimize transportation cost and so on. To improve the design for logistics characteristics at the product design stage, five strategies namely Flat packaging strategy, design for non-circular sub parts, modular design principles and design for ease of fabrication have been identified. Quality function deployment (QFD) approach, a successful method often used for new product development was used in the selection of strategies for designing products from a logistics viewpoint. The results of QFD shows that, flat packaging strategy and modular design principles are the critical strategies for the improvement of logistics characteristics of the product at the design stage. The novelty of this article is to establish a tool box for design experts in designing products for logistics. The methodology has been tested by means of a real case application, in an Indian manufacturing organization.

Paper ID: 420

i-HAWA: An interactive device for providing cognitive breaks in the Workspace

Anamika Bhatt (Unitedworld Institute of Design, Karnavati University), Saurav Vaishnav (Unitedworld Institute of Design, Karnavati University), Muskan Surana (Unitedworld Institute of Design, Karnavati University) and Naveen Kumar (Unitedworld institute of Design, Karnavati University)

Abstract: New ways of living require new ways of working in the offices.There is a shift in work culture towards the new needs of the company administration and management. With time it will be necessary to understand physiological, psychological, and emotional needs of the company workers. Thus, this knowledge can form a basis to develop the progressive office spaces of the future. The research focuses into employee 'burnout' and 'mental fatigue' and how a cognitive break can be provided to desk job employees such that it has a positive effect on their work performance. As humans have made immense environmental developments while making their immediate surroundings more and more unnatural, it is understood that employees who are forced to work in a man-made environment experience an increase in stress levels due to a lack of exposure to nature. The research was conducted through a personal interview
format that covered topics related to employee aspirations, stress levels, relaxation/break time patterns, etc. The data collected was qualitative and quantitative in nature. After analyzing the data, it was inferred that employees are most relaxed by natural absions. To meet this need, i-HAWA was created. iHAWA is an interactive device to be installed in the common areas of a workspace with the intention to provide cognitive breaks to employees dealing with excessive mental activity. The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of cognitive breaks in workspaces and present design of i-HAWA along with its design methodology, product features and functionality.

Paper ID: 421

Speculating Cybernetic Cities in a Posthuman era: Design of Internet of Bodies (IoB)

Srinjoy Ghosh (Siemens Corporate Research) and Mohd Saim Nasim Lari (Siemens Corporate Research)

Abstract: This paper incorporates a quantum design approach to design possibility through the lens of Techno-humanism (interchangeably used with transhuman) and Internet of Bodies (IoB). Functionally, depending on how the pre-sent is characterized both past and future possibilities are defined simultaneously is the basis of a quantum design approach. Please keep in mind that ‘past’, present’, and ‘future’ is utilized here in a literal sense of lived temporality. Techno-humanism is seeking to utilize and upgrade the human mind to enable access to hitherto unknown experiences and unfamiliar states of consciousness. [Harari, 2015] At the same time, with humankind incorporating a posthuman phase and largely expected to extend to a transhuman one; supporters of trans-humanism argue that we have arrived in a post-Darwinian era in which we can shape our own evolution [9] and the inevitability of a Internet of Bodies (IoB). A classic example of IoB application is the Matrix universe in the The Matrix Trilogy films. The present harbors IoB through the Internet of Things (IoT) portfolio, through its data centric lens of monitoring and optimization of networked infrastructural processes (as part of the human body) which seems as the cornerstone towards a new techno-social era.
The aim of the paper is to add to the crucial emerging body of ‘Internet of Bodies (IoB)’[Matwyshyn, 2019]literature in HCI design by leveraging a speculative design out-look to the future of urbanism in a more integrated and connected era. Additionally, through an experimental study about the future of a connected IoB future, the paper shall expound ways of enabling, creating, and presenting the probable design architecture routes to help the conceptualizing and imagining of future possibilities in a connected IoB smart city. Along-side, we will illustrate the results of the experiment through the lens of probable out-comes as a result of co-opting and co-designing the homogeneous evolution of HCI, IoT, and IoB in future smart cities.
Works cited:
Harari, Yuval N. (2015). Homo Deus - A Brief History of Tomorrow. Penguin Random House.
Matwyshyn, Andrea M. (2019). The Internet of Bodies, 60 WM. & MARY L. REV. (forthcoming)
Author Contributions: Regardless of the listed order of the authors, all authors contributed equally by participating in discussions, writing sections, revising corresponding sections, and providing revision comments on the entire paper.
Acknowledgement: The authors would like to thank and acknowledge the participants of the experiment.

Paper ID: 422


Manoj Kumar Verma (Center for Rural Technology, IIT GUWAHATI) and Amarendra Kumar Das (Department of Design, IIT Guwahati)

Abstract: In India, Agriculture is one of the major contributors to the GDP (Gross Domestic Product), to the tune of 14.6% and also provides direct employment to the 55% of the population as per latest Economic surveys. While providing livelihood it is also contributing to the food security for an increasing population. However, Agriculture is also the largest consumer of water in India to the tune of 85% which is forecasted to increase by 2030. As such judicious planning for water-use is essential to maximize the water productivity. Many studies suggest that using an irrigation system with higher irrigation efficiency, like micro-irrigation system is the most direct way to address sectoral water shortage.
Govt. has been taking many initiatives like PMKSY (Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana) and Micro-irrigation Fund to increase the adoption of micro-irrigation in the country. However, in case of Assam the results have not been very positive. Data available from Govt. authorities reveal that the adoption rate of micro-irrigation is one of the lowest in case of Assam. In spite of Govt. giving subsidies, there are not many takers of this efficient technology of irrigation. As such the ground-water level in Assam is taking additional load apart from the Surface water sources owing to the smaller reach of existing irrigation facilities and lack of coordination among the various departments. Most of the studies done in the field of micro-irrigation take up the subject of crop productivity & yield and are in context to other parts of the country, i.e. excluding Assam. Considering this backdrop, this research is being done in the State of Assam for understanding the irrigation requirements of farmers and analyze the various factors involved which influence the selection of type of irrigation.
The research aims to understand that whether design interventions can help in facilitating adoption of micro-irrigation among farmers of the State of Assam. The objective being to develop a representative model of variables affecting the adoption of micro-irrigation system in the region and later on to validate this model using an experimental protocol, in order to help the designers in developing effective design intervention strategies. The research will also help in prioritizing factors that affect adoption decision with insights on water productivity.

Paper ID: 424


Kausik Bhattacharya (Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore), Sandipan Gangopadhyay (GalaxE Solutions) and Carlton DeBrule (Independent Technology Leader)

Abstract: Project planning is a critical event for overall success of a project. Project planning in business technology projects is a multidisciplinary activity and often becomes complex due to inter-dependency of various rules and process that governs each discipline individually. Many times, project planning overlooks these inter dependencies and fails to utilize the historical knowledge and best practices, resulting in re-work at later stage which leads to incurring extra time and cost.
To address this gap, a global healthcare company, producing medical devices, pharmaceutical and consumer goods, designed and developed a “first of its kind” expert system as a technology proof of concept for flawless planning and decision support of technology projects that has serious regulatory implications.
This system ensures that projects \"start right\" by enforcing standard entry criteria and allows tailoring of the project plan based on project type and complexity. This technology system was designed using a rules-based decision engine and optimized search algorithm covering multiple domains like software engineering, regulations and risk management, computer system validation and project management. Design of this system aligns very closely with industry best practices such as CMMi and GAMP. This system also seamlessly interface with project management system to enable stage gate reviews and can track project outcomes in a closed loop process that reconciles projected milestones, effort, resources, quality performance (defects in the SDLC phases), cost and value between plan and actual so that the system, and by extension, the project team achieves continuous improvement.
This paper describes the design aspects of this technology proof of concept and results obtained from the initial pilot study which was undertaken to examine the feasibility.

Paper ID: 427

How ethical are persuasive design practices? A proposal for assessment of ethics in HCI design

Sanju Ahuja (Indian Institute of Technology Delhi) and Jyoti Kumar (Indian Institute of Technology Delhi)

Abstract: Ever since bounds on human rationality and cognitive biases in decision contexts have been reported, designers have exploited these weaknesses to yield conversion by creating persuasive HCI designs. Such design practices have been widely reported to be effective in influencing user decision making. However, the exploitation of a cognitive bias compromises the cognitive autonomy of an individual. This paper argues for the need of ethical assessment of persuasive design practices which undermine a user’s cognitive autonomy. The paper proposes a model for persuasive information design in human computer interaction (HCI PID model) and derives from it a framework to assess the ethics of persuasive design practices. In this framework, five design parameters and their twelve subcomponents have been proposed as measures of an HCI system’s conduciveness to autonomous decision making without unduly influencing a user. The paper proposes a scoring methodology to assess design features of HCI systems on the proposed parameters. The proposed assessment framework was used by 20 participants to evaluate five mobile applications on features that are relevant to autonomous decision making. It was observed that the proposed framework has effectively helped the assessors to identify unethically persuasive design features.

Paper ID: 433

Tendon Driven Rolling-Joint End-Effector Mechanism for Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS)

Mrunal Chavan (IIT Bombay), Prabhat Kumar (IIT Bombay), Dr. Rupesh Ghyar (BETiC, IIT Bombay), Bhallamudi Ravi (IIT Bombay) and P. S. Gandhi (IIT Bombay)

Abstract: Innovation in minimally invasive surgical technologies can have a substantial increase in the number of surgeries performed and the patient outcome. Based on the survey done among 100 laparoscopic surgeons throughout India, the need for highly articulated surgical instruments for laparoscopy was put forth irrespective of the experience of the surgeon. The present innovation is directed towards an end-effector mechanism that provides the wristed motion with no singularity in roll, pitch, and yaw. To obtain the desired yaw and pitch motions, various concepts were analyzed, and the best mechanism in terms of manufacturability, innovation potential, and various design constraints was selected to be tendon driven rolling-joint end-effector mechanism.
In this mechanism each disc is configured to rotate in at least one degree of freedom or DoF (e.g., in pitch or yaw) with respect to each neighboring disc or end member. To control the movements of the disc elements actuation cables or tendon elements are used to manipulate the end-effector. The wrist mechanism resembles in some respects to tendon-actuated steerable members which are used in gastroscopes, steerable catheters, and similar medical instruments. Each link is in contact with the neighboring disc with a geared rolling joint profile. The discs maintain contact with each other by, for example, the tension of the actuation cables. The discs are free to separate upon release of the tension of the actuation cables.
One of the key design parameters in these end-effectors is the tendon placement within the joints. There are multiple parameter combinations of tendon locations, which will impact the inner channel size, the joint range, and the torque delivery. The optimization is done on MATLAB, where it optimizes the design in terms of joint angle range and tendon placement to prevent the tendons and joints from colliding during bending motion. The resulting optimized joints were manufactured using 3D printing. The end-effector will be characterized in terms of surgical workspace, dexterity, and manipulation forces. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) was also done for the chosen tendon driven rolling-joint end-effector mechanism.

Paper ID: 435

Design-Audited Mass Communication Model

Suresh Goduka (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati) and Amarendra Kumar Das (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati)

Abstract: Assam is world’s largest tea growing region, even as the tea industry labour-ers lag behind in human development parameters, suffering high magnitude of malnutrition, infectious diseases, superstition. This research paper tries to understand and analyze the communication process prevalent among them, whether various communication campaigns have effectively served neces-sary awareness messages to them, whether existing communication models are adequate for them and what design intervention can do for a better to-morrow of such population by exploring the scope of designing a new mod-el. A usability study examines the characteristics of their interaction with media and processing of messages and meanings. The gap in communication message designs indicates the need for a new approach to deal with the unique challenges. An intervention study has been conducted. A new and exclusive model is proposed for them: a model of mass communication to be audited on the principles of design and contextual usability.

Paper ID: 440

Assessment of Knowledge, Behavior, and Practices of Maternal and Child health of Rural Pregnant Women

Rohit Kumar (Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur) and Shatarupa Thakurta Roy (Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur)

Abstract: Globally, every day about 2,92,000 women die from pregnancy and childbirth-related issues, which are mostly preventable. India accounts for approx. 20% of this maternal death, which is around 44,000 death per day. More than one-third of the Indian population leaves in the rural area with low economy and low literacy. The data from UNICEF India Maternal Health also indicates that women from this low economy and education background account for two and a half times higher mortality rate. For these rural people, the Government of India launched the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in 2005 under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. This mission aims to reduce maternal and child mortality through various measures and initiatives to control preventable diseases, maintain population and gender balance, provide public health service for all. Despite all this government initiative, the maternal and child health of rural India shows a mixed result. Though a decline can be seen in maternal mortality rate from the year 2007 to 2016, which is 212 death (per lakh live birth) to 130 death in the respective years, this decline is way behind the Sustainable Development Goal target, which is 70 death per 1,00,000 live birth. This demands a need to find an appropriate solution through design intervention to overcome maternal and child health awareness faced across the rural community of India. Information communication through Graphic Design and illustrations, often supported through television, cell phone, community awareness campaign, print media, etc. shows potential in health awareness. However, research on the effectiveness of these community awareness methods across the rural region with low literacy and limited resource has not been sufficiently explored. This research therefore, explores and investigate the effectiveness of different communication mode, along with the relation between different level of literacy and maternal and child health awareness. A case study with an aim to find key information gaps and design intervention needed in order to create awareness of safe maternal and child health practices.
This research is the initial phase of Design project and will outline the outcome of eight-month of field-based studies in rural region of Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh, one of the states performing worse with a high burden of maternal and child health) by data collected from contextual inquiry across 106 pregnant women, where user need, information gap, different communication mode, behavior, socio-culture issues, are observed, studied, analyzed and interpreted. The findings resulted in need of creating awareness and educating rural women on crucial health topics, the importance of rural health workers (Accredited Social Health Activist), and the need for design intervention for effective communication of sensitive information on maternal and child health.

Paper ID: 443

Narrative - a vehicle to generate product form

Suresh Sethi (University of Illinois Urbana Champaign)

Abstract: The paper focuses on the aesthetic assessment and evaluation of the designed product forms. The emphasis was on whether the use of narrative improved the expressive qualities and the unity of the designed artifacts. The story seems to be the condition that guarantees the unity of the object, and at the same time, gives the product form its structure by connecting and merging lines, colors, shapes, and volumes of the experience into a new form. This merging is what philosopher John Dewey called aesthetic experience. Aesthetic experience has a central focus, in which attention is upon its object, intensity, and unity, where unity is a matter of coherence and completeness. The results of the study confirm that using narratives at the conceptualization phase of the design process structured the perception and organized designers’ own experiences to generate the product form.

Paper ID: 446

Musculoskeletal Disorders and Ergonomic Risk Assessment of Postures Adopted by Handcrafted 'Kalash’ Polishers, North-east India

Krishna Chaitanya Mallampalli (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati) and Swati Pal (Indian Institute of Technology Bombay)

Abstract: The ergonomic risk assessment of the postural attitude of the workers is essential for evaluating physical workload in the workplace, especially when they interact with workstation elements. Exposure to heavy physical work and repetitive actions are common among informal workers in handicraft work while interacting with non-ergonomic tools. Such working conditions, consequently, leads to the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). In this context, a study has been conducted on handcrafted Kalash polishers in brass-metal handicraft production units located in north-east India, where most of the polishers in the polishing task uses a traditional polishing tool, and their working postures are mostly constrained by the design of polishing tool. Therefore, the present study aims to determine the occurrence of MSDs and the ergonomic risk of working postures of Kalash polishers in brass-metal handicraft production units. The study sample comprised of 40 polishers. Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ), Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) tool, non-invasive postural acquisition using cameras, virtual prototyping, digital human modeling, and simulation software were used. The results of this study revealed that 100 % of polishers reported musculoskeletal discomfort in at least one body region during the past 12 months. The highest prevalence of MSDs was found particularly in the lower back (75 %), followed by upper back (52.5 %), elbows (50.0 %), and hand/wrist (47.5 %) regions. The mean severity of pain using the 5-point rating scale indicated moderate to high pain in the lower back, upper back, and shoulder regions. Further, the simulation results indicated that the adopted working postures of polishers were at a very high-risk level with the existing polishing tool. Based on these findings, implications for further research include the design/redesign of the existing polishing tool based on ergonomic principles, which may improve working postures and reduce the risk of MSDs among this occupational group.

Paper ID: 449

Design for Sustainable Smart Cities; An impactful approach through the role of designers towards Future of Mankind

Veera Venkata Atmakuri (Siemens Technology & Services Private Limited), Mohd Saim Nasim Lari (Siemens Technology & Services Private Limited) and Arun Thangaraj (Siemens Technology & Services Private Limited)

Abstract: According to United Nations estimates, about 70% of the world’s population will live in urban areas by 2050. [1] Smart sustainable cities technologies and approaches, including those based on Information and Communications Technology (ICT) solutions and Internet of Things (IoT), are already helping people to overcome multiple challenges of urban development and to progress towards achieving global objectives for cities, particularly Sustainable Development Goal 11 “Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable”. [2] The Smart Cities Mission (SCM), launched in 2015, by the Government of India, aims at building up sustainable and inclusive cities that provide core infrastructure, a clean and sustainable environment and a decent quality of life to its citizens. The strategic components of the Mission are city improvement (retrofitting), city renewal (redevelopment) and city extension (greenfield development) with Smart Solutions applied in service delivery and governance. [3] There are several urbanisation models that incorporate digital technologies to address some of the urbanisation and sustainability challenges: Digital Cities feature the integration of digital technology into the city’s core infrastructure systems; Intelligent Cities rely on the digital city infrastructure to build intelligent buildings, transportation systems, schools, enterprises, public spaces, public services, etc. and to integrate them into intelligent urban systems; and Smart Cities – deploy intelligent urban systems at the service of socio-economic development and improving urban quality of life. [4]
So, here, we are trying to deal with systems of systems in physical ecosystems powered by various ICT and digital technologies.
Meanwhile, the existing technological approaches tend to latch onto the most hyped technology of the year and produce many silo-ed solutions for smart cities which, although elevates technology innovation, fails to engage its citizens. Therefore a design intervention is needed to help bridge this and make technologies work for humans, the citizens, the primary stakeholder. This paper is an inquisition into the role of design and designers to bring the right kind of approach when it comes to Sustainable Smart City design. The paper first lays down the high-level role and responsibilities of designers and its various other key stakeholders in crafting a smart city. Then it talks about the right kind of methodologies that designers bring at all levels of Sustainable Smart City design – from working with official bodies in co-creation and collaboration mode to the end-users – the citizens - to understand their wants, needs, and desires. The paper then details out a case study of a smart campus where the aforementioned methods are applied in order to come up with the most effective designs for the smart city that meet the official bodies' KPI requirements and at the same time, delivers best-in-class experiences to citizen.
[1] United Nations
[2] The first United Smart Cities SMART CITY LAB opened in Vienna, supporting co-creation of solutions for smart sustainable cities worldwide, May 2018, UNECE
[3] SDG India Dashboard, 2019-2020, NITI Aayog
[4] Estevez, Elsa; Lopes, Nuno; Janowski, Tomasz (2016),Smart Sustainable Cities: Reconnaissance Study
*All authors have equal contribution to the paper

Paper ID: 451

Inference Variable – A human cognition and design perspective on knowledge graph visualization

Rani Joseph (Siemens Technology and Services Pvt Ltd), Abhilasha (Siemens Technology and Services Pvt Ltd), Prithvi Raj Ramakrishnaraja (Siemens Technology and Services Pvt Ltd), Ramesh Manickam (Siemens Technology and Services Pvt Ltd), Vineetha K (Siemens Technology and Services Pvt Ltd) and Srinjoy Ghosh (Siemens Technology and Services Pvt Ltd)

Abstract: In this paper, we expound our theoretical hypothesis covering effective visualization factors in the area of visual analytics for a Knowledge Graph (KG) considering human cognition aspects of inferencing. We elaborate on the outcome of the research, introducing an inference variable that is established as a new dimension for knowledge visualization in knowledge graphs.
KG represents a collection of interlinked descriptions of entities – real-world objects, events, situations or abs concepts achieved by interconnecting large network of data. In the journey of data turning into knowledge, a process of rationalization takes place where - a) data is refined into information, b) schematized into correlated information and c) transformed into high-quality, conflated, schematized knowledge ready for inferencing.
The state-of-the-art visualizations focus on representing the knowledge graph as interconnected triples: subject, object and predicate (Resource Description Framework). However, there are evident challenges in using this for visual inferencing. The paper reflects on the first and foremost challenge with these visualizations - which is effectively harnessing the potential of a knowledge graph visually. While there is a progress on the technical front in allowing an inference to be queried, there is limited scope to do the same visually.
The second challenge identified is when the user has to use his mental space and cognitive reserve to conflate and schematize knowledge to infer. There are certain constraints with this as to how the human attention is efficiently oriented towards the relevant information and the visualized information is not cognitively loaded for the user to infer from it. As far as the visualization aspect of the knowledge graph is concerned, the aim is to reduce the cognitive resources used for building a new schema of the task inside long-term memory.
Hence, the proposed inferencing variable in the paper enables the release of space and conserves the cognitive reserve for further higher cognitive process of decision making. It also includes the elements of motivation for the user to visualize knowledge in knowledge graphs and an overview of the existing visualizations of KG.

Paper ID: 454

Water, a product?

Shubham Vaidya (Design Innovation Center, School of Plannimng and Architecture, New Delhi), Aditi Singh (School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi) and Parag Anand (School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi)

Abstract: “Jivanam jivinãm jivaha” is a Sanskrit shlok, cited in an Ayurveda text “Bha-vaprakash”, which translates to ‘water is life to creatures’. Water, has always been an important source of life on Earth. However, today’s water crisis is grip-ping. In July 2019 Chennai witnessed an acute water crisis, after one of the main reservoirs completely dried up. A report by NITI AYOG pointed out that 21 major cities in India would run out water supply by 2020.
In response to this national water crisis, in 2019 the government of India urged its citizens to start a mass movement for water conservation and formed a dedicated ministry to look into water related affairs. The paper questions this preparedness of citizens of India to counter this catastrophe and whether their systems comply with the idea of the conservation of water that do not allow for an unnecessary water wastage. The blind installation of RO filters, in urban spaces, in the fear of consuming ‘impure’ water, causes three times the amount of filtered water, to be drained off through reverse osmosis reject system. This has two grave consequences, one on the underground water reserves and the other on the human body. Examining these consequences, this paper will try to understand the fascination with RO filters and its hold over the masses. The paper will make an important intervention by raising the unasked question, are the RO filters necessary and if they do more harm than good? Finally, the paper will end with a feasible solution that may replace the damaging control that RO filters have over the masses.
This research started with a design perspective of re-thinking how RO water filters should be seen amidst this water crisis. Tests were made, for TDS and pH value, on samples collected from raw and municipal water sources with a brief survey to understand the psychological status of the market.

Paper ID: 461

Active Learning Strategies for Teaching Research Skills To First Year Design Students

Anshoo Rajvanshi (Indian Instititute of Art & Design) and Gauravi Mittal (Indian Institute of Art & Design)

Abstract: Research has always been regarded as one of the fundamental skills in design practice as design is context driven and is a response to particular time and space. With Indian design industry coming of age the professional boundaries have now extended from design practitioners to independent researchers in design. Considering the pivotal role of research in design both in academia and industry, design research is emphasised as a strong disciplinary pillar.
Contemporary design education aims at a strong and holistic development oriented teaching and training for the future design professionals to which research education is considered inevitable and rather mandatory. In addition to research for context of design, curriculums offering degree have included research methodology and academic paper writing for students to learn the nuances of pure design research.
Research is a complex skill as it integrates procedural, involves critical thinking, time management and planning. However, students entering higher education mostly have false assumptions about their research abilities, as they had been successfully performing in their research based assignments in school, having all their answers directly answered by Wikipedia, Quora and Khan academy; and get intimidated and overwhelmed when introduced to research methodology. Theoretical approach makes research concepts abs to comprehend. A need was felt to develop students’ confidence in using resources, engaging with academic material and employing a range of methods for its analysis and interpretation along with ethical practices. Hence, active learning approach was adopted to teach research skills rather than research methodology to first year design students to equip them with an ability to realise the importance, relevance, and utility of their research process. More complex concepts and principles of research along with its wider implications will get revealed at advanced levels.
To demystify the perceived idea of research and to engage the students in the process, the teaching strategies in controlled environment are built on Bloom’s taxonomy and Vygotsky’s scaffolding theory along with motivational strategies. Student’s reliance on internet and struggles to deal with information overload is kept into consideration. It involves putting them at the centre of the learning process to help build their comprehension, analytical skills and academic writing skills at an individual level. Each strategy based on instruction, demonstration, discussion, encouragement, guided peer discussion and feedback, is designed to act as a scaffolding to facilitate learning through the guidance of the tutor and collaboration with peers. The idea is to provide individual student an opportunity to understand, comprehend, apply, reflect on the relevance of each activity or task, leading to understanding of the learnt skills with its appropriate application.
This paper maps the effectiveness of active learning strategies for teaching research skills, and identify the benefits and challenges of such approaches for both teacher and student. The data is collected from two consecutive batches of first year design students. Both qualitative and quantitate methods are applied which includes structured questionnaire and students work analysed against level descriptors. The sample size of first year design students taken is 60 across two consecutive years.

Paper ID: 462

Design Thinking Approach In Identification of Service Design Based On User Interface for Grocery Monitoring System in Indian context

Leeladhar Ganvir (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati) and Pratul C. Kalita (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati)

Abstract: Grocery monitoring is a new trend due to people being conscious about what they buy and wastage of food. Several product design strategies have been developed to help the consumer manage groceries and make the shopping experience effortless. However, there are no service design solutions, on a system level that take advantage of these strategies. An integrated solution for grocery shopping and management will help the consumer track his purchases and food habits. In this era of online solutions, a service was developed for grocery management in the Indian context. A mobile application, which enables the user to track food habits, manage groceries and explore their needs was developed. Consumer behavior and purchase patterns were observed and studied in detail in order to understand the various needs and requirements of the user. The user interface, along with the service design and support system provides a platform for consumers to shop efficiently. The target users of this service are housewives, working women, and occasional cooks from the middle and higher middle class. The solution was designed to create a business and service opportunity for Indian sensibilities and markets.

Paper ID: 463

Why story telling should be the medium of design education

Sugandha Jain (UPID, Noida) and Abhishek Srivastava (UPID, Noida)

Abstract: Design education is a relatively new term as compared to human existence, but design is not. Design has been part of human civilization since its inception, and so is storytelling. It is observed that stories have an essence of relatability by evoking emotions in the listener, because of which it effortlessly remains with the user for a long time. Similarly a good design experience remains with the user for quite a long time. A story connects multiple characters, incidents with a single thread and similarly in design, we consider diverse domains like psychology, technology, marketing, art and many more fields to come up with a seamless design experience.
The aim of the paper is to probe the needs of design education and establish its strong connection with storytelling. Through reflection on various literature, it has been observed that stories can be used in the design process at multiple levels and in diverse forms, helping in building the requisites skills for designers. Storytelling can be a very effective and impactful medium complimenting the other tools and techniques in the design process.
The paper shall establish a strong case for using storytelling as a medium in design which will be useful for - design educators, students and as well as design professionals to utilize it in their respective roles and get benefitted from the practise of storytelling.

Paper ID: 464

Design, development and testing of a mechanized terrace forming equipment

M. Angelus Khoh (IIT Guwahati) and Amarendra Kumar Das (IIT Guwahati)

Abstract: Terrace fields are often seen in hilly or mountainous regions in different parts of the world. These terrace fields are man-made flat beds on hilly terrains for the purpose of farming. Slopes are cut to form flat-beds to contain soil erosion, retain water for wet cultivation, aquaculture/pisciculture, etc. With context of the North Eastern Region of India, along with terrace cultivation, Jhum/Shifting cultivation is still practiced in few pockets although the later has been banned in India. Therefore, there is an urgency to encourage the farmers of the region to adopt terrace cultivation. Majority of the existing terrace fields are formed with traditional hand tools thus, making it a labour intensive and time-consuming process. Mechanization of the process can hardly be observed even to the present day due to various reasons viz., agricultural machinery used in plain areas are not always suitable in hilly areas, lack of motorable roads to transport or manoeuvre such machinery and equipment, safety concerns, landholding patterns, socio-economic considerations, lack of innovative machinery or equipment suitable for hill terrains.
This research explores the areas where mechanization of the agricultural processes in hilly areas is required. It has been identified that terrace field forming process is one vital area. Since heavy machinery is not suitable for hilly terrains, compact power tillers are considered a more suitable alternative. However, the present power tiller available are not equipped for forming terrace fields, therefore, this paper presents the design and development of a mechanized terrace forming equipment suitable for hilly areas. Four concepts were generated and discussed for their merits and demerits and the most suitable one is chosen based on inputs from individuals familiar with design processes and a concept selection matrix to develop the prototype further. The prototype of the sub-units components developed are discussed in this paper. The paper deals with concept to prototype stage of the design. Immediate future works will focus on testing the equipment and analyzing the result(s) and making any design changes if required. Mechanizing the agricultural processes in general and terrace cultivation processes in the hilly regions of north eastern India will increase the agricultural productivity of the farmers of this region.

Paper ID: 475

Design of Farmer friendly interface using kiosk

Sri Siddarth Chakaravarthy P (Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore), Dr. Saleem Durai (Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore), Dr. Srimathi C (Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore), Dr. Robin Ram Mohan Doss (Deakin University) and Seng Loke (Deakin Univerisity)

Abstract: Agriculture plays a vital role in the growth of country’s economy and provides ample employment opportunities to people. Many farmers still use the traditional methods of farming which results in low economic growth. Thus, there is a need to implement modern science and technology in the agriculture sector for increasing both yield and profit.
Lack of knowledge and inability to use smartphones proves to be a major drawback for most of the farmers which is overcome with the help of this model, as this is designed to be advantageous for all the end users. The proposed system aims to reinforce a methodology in which the farmers are more connected and aware of the constant developments in the country. In this model, we develop a cross platform software that works on both mobile app/kiosk and is oriented to fulfill the needs of a farmers and customers. This allows interoperability between the phone and the kiosk system. Though there are many solutions available, most of them are not farmer friendly, to overcome this problem the system is designed with fundamental and illustrative user interface that is language independent and includes gesture-based control and voice assistance. Secondly, it includes smart irrigation with smart control and intelligent decision making based on accurate real time field data. Thirdly, the use of a kiosk system for the users who cannot perceive smartphones or who do not possess the same. M2M protocols is used to initiate communication between the sensors. The sensors are placed in appropriate places to fetch details like humidity, temperature, bacterial level, etc. The app encompasses a user model that supports certain features that are designed for customers which include buying products from farmers directly and omitting the interference of middleman/merchants, check their delivery status, etc. The farmers will be able to check the current market prices, analyze the demand of the customers and produce respective products, and also be able to track their orders, control irrigation, monitor the field through cameras that are installed around the field. The app also suggests suitability of seeds for the region and provides crop maintenance feature. These modules are implemented using technologies like RFID, GPS, etc. The app also is capable of detecting diseases in plants, fruits, etc. using CNN with classifiers that can later be examined by officers in government agencies like ICAR to provide knowledge regarding their issues. There are many agriculture smartphone apps on crop prices, weather conditions, inventory levels and innovative farming techniques and machinery.The data collected from the sensors is then collected onto a cloud. The model then uses predictive analysis to find patterns and suggests improvement to farmers like the amount of pesticides to be used, irrigation timings, etc. Henceforth the proposed model will help to establish a constructive and secure communication between farmers and customer. The model mounts to impact the life of farmers by providing a profitable income and sustainability. The various data that are collected can be used for further research purposes.

Paper ID: 479

Calligraphic typesetting exploration of religious scriptures to resurrect the emotional and spiritual connection originally existed in the traditional penmanship

Abhay Verma (Central Institute of Technology, Kokrajhar, Assam, India) and Abhijit Padun (Central Institute of Technology, Kokrajhar, Assam, India)

Abstract: Indian calligraphy has a very noble, decorative, and a unique style which can be seen in the major Indian religious texts composed and handwritten by ancient Indian sages and calligraphers. Technological evolution promoted cheaper mass-produced printed copies of the same handwritten religious scriptures which led to a drastic decrease in the demand for calligraphy artists and handwritten scriptures. It has been observed that available printed scriptures have a monotonous typesetting and printing style. As a result, a hypothesis has been proposed stating that people have lost the emotional connection which they had with the handwritten scriptures. This study addresses this issue by collecting adequate data and conducting a design experiment, to explore the feasibility of offering an absolute alternative to ancient calligraphic scriptures to bring back positive psychological connections through innovative design intervention. Further, the study also tries to explore the future usage and digital implications of the experiment.

Paper ID: 481

Para, adda and residents of Kolkata: Need for design of new neighbourhoods accommodating cultural legacies

Suryendu Dasgupta (Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee) and Megha Tyagi (Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee)

Abstract: In Kolkata, para or informal neighbourhood refers to an urban residential unit demarcated not by administrative boundaries but by cultural and social cohesiveness of the residents identifying themselves with the particular urban unit. The colonial urban environment nurtured these neighbourhood units which constituted the domain of the ‘natives’, forming their personal urban space. With the exposure of the educated Bengali middle-class to Westernization, these paras also witnessed the genesis of significant socio-cultural activity of adda - an informal social talk, usually done in Bengali, among friends, colleagues or even family members. Conducted in public spaces within residential areas, adda is generally tied to intellectual or current-affairs topics. The social cohesiveness of the paras along with leisurely activities like adda imparts the quintessential cultural charm to older Kolkata neighbourhoods. Additionally, it creates a safe environment for residents with more ‘eyes on the street’ providing a sense of security on the street, even during late hours.
However, due to changing socio-politics and socio-economic conditions of the city, the essence of para and the adda culture is on the decline within new neighbourhoods. The study aims to highlight the need for extending the cultural legacies of old Kolkata neighbourhoods into new ones to address the emotional needs of its residents through neighbourhood design. The key objectives are to establish the need for extending the cultural legacy of adda to the city’s new neighbourhoods and propose interventions to encourage adda culture through urban design and policy framework within new neighbourhoods.
The study employed a comprehensive literature review to understand the context and interrelation between paras and adda in the colonial urban past and its relevance within the existing postcolonial, globalised urban scenario. Interviews were conducted with the residents of three neighbourhoods to gain insights from their perspectives on the need to extend the cultural legacy of adda in new neighbourhoods. The data was analysed using content analysis method.
The literature reveals that adda, as a shared heritage among the citizen, constitute three critical factors of content, time and place. It encourages social cohesion in the community and keeps public spaces active in the neighbourhood. Most new neighbourhoods experience higher crime rate owing to weak social association and limited resident’s outdoor mobility. Conversely, positive perception of residents towards street safety, sense of attachment and social cohesion was observed through interviews from old neighbourhoods with a strong adda culture.
Overall, the paper highlights the significance of social association in an active urban neighbourhood. It establishes the role of spatial design in establishing a sense of association and identity among the residents encouraging social interaction.

Paper ID: 486


Akanksha Akanksha (Amity university)

Abstract: -As innerwear market growth rate is expected 13 percent to reach Rs . 59,540 crore by 2023
( ICICI direct ,retail equity research,2012)
-Innerwear has moved out of the ‘basic necessity’ bracket and is now associated with a feel good factor
-Consumption is going to increase and same the discarding also, so it’s time to look inside and make changes in undergarment sector . As MacKenzie Research expects the share of the innerwear segment to reach 10% by 2020 (from 7% in 2010)( ICICI direct ,2012)
-The women’s innerwear market, which is driven by value-added innerwear products, contributes around 60 percent to the total innerwear market . This market is worth R s. 10,880 crore, and is growing at a promising CAGR of 15 percent ( Technopak, India retailing -bureau)

Paper ID: 488

Anecdotes to Animation: Role of oral history in visual adaptation study

Swayamsiddha Panigrahi (IIT Bombay and NTU Singapore), Hans-Martin Rall (NTU Singapore) and Mazhar Kamran (IIT Bombay)

Abstract: This paper investigates the qualitative research method of oral history collection through in-person interviews in the context of visual adaptation studies. For this discourse, two academicians cum animation scholars across two countries, India and Malaysia, are interviewed. Personal testimonies are validated to understand the process and decisions for designing traditional visual art informed animations styles. The study evaluates the research method through relevant, practice-based examples and context analysis. This scholarly approach is nascent in the field of visual art studies and animation. Hence, the findings of this study hold significant value for designers, creative practitioners and academicians.

Paper ID: 491

Designing Sustainable Tourism Experiences for the Tourists of Tomorrow

Anamika Menon (Tata Consultancy Services) and Sagarika Jayawant (Tata Consultancy Services)

Abstract: Tourism is one of the fastest-growing and most important economic sectors in the world with its continuously evolving trends and its potential to create millions of job opportunities. The rise of globalization, changing demographics, and the constantly evolving needs of people has widened the canvas for tourism. However, improved connectivity and an increase in the purchasing power of people has resulted in rapid and unplanned tourism which has proven to be an environmental challenge. With a desire to travel and unwind being the topmost priority among today's population, the number of tourists is predicted to increase by 3.3 percent per year causing tourism to become more of a hassle. Considering the current world scenario, the emerging generations (Generation Z and Millennials) are expected to contribute a significant market share in the tourism sector by the year 2040. The paper aims to identify the various pain points in the tourism experience and help advance the research and development of a sustainable tourism model. Specific attention is focussed on illustrating tourism as a part of the “Experience Economy” and demonstrating how technological innovations such as Artificial Intelligence, Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality, Internet of Things has given rise to the possibility of “Smart Tourism” and can contribute to help empower the host communities and at the same time enable a transparent, reliable and seamless travel experience, for the tourists.

Paper ID: 492

Inclusive design in higher educational institutes for specially-abled persons

Priyanka Yadav (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Guwahati, Guwahati- 781039, Assam, India), Udaya Kumar Dharmalingm (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Guwahati Guwahati- 781039, Assam, India) and Sougata Karmakar (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Guwahati)

Abstract: Concepts of universal design are gradually making its roads in the design and development of public spaces (airports, shopping malls, metro-railway stations, etc.) and public utilitarian facilities (ATM, ticket vending machines, telephone booths, etc.). Although the educational institutions are an essential category of the public space, it is still deprived of harnessing the benefits of universal design in the majority of the countries. When infrastructures are created for educational in-stitutions' buildings, due considerations are given for architectural space layout, strength and stability of the architectural structure, aesthetics and functional as-pects, sustainability parameters, etc. Barrier-free environments are created mainly for wheel-chair users to make the institutional space inclusive to accommodate physically challenged/ specially-abled stakeholders (students, teachers, supportive staffs, and visitors). Still, the requirements of different types of specially-abled people are not aptly addressed to make the built-space inclusive. Here, it is worth mentioning that the difficulties due to their various limitations among specially-abled people are diverse. Thus, all these necessities are to be addressed collective-ly in the infrastructure of an educational institute. Besides infrastructures, various assistive aids are crucial to facilitate quality education among specially-abled stakeholders. Through a systematic review, the current research aimed at deter-mining the extent to which the issues/ problems of the specially-abled stakehold-ers have been addressed in the design and development of infrastructures and as-sistive aids in educational institutes.

Paper ID: 495

Design Thinking Instructions and Cognitive Processes

Apoorv Naresh Bhatt (Centre for Product Design and Manufacturing (CPDM) Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore), Lavannya Suressh (Department of Electronics and Communication (ECE), PES University, Bangalore) and Amaresh Chakrabarti (Centre for Product Design and Manufacturing (CPDM) Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore)

Abstract: Current teaching and assessment techniques in the Indian education system emphasizes rote learning over meaningful learning. During teaching and assessment, more importance is given to retention skills. Moreover, repetitions of questions over the period of exams indirectly hinder the transfer of knowledge to students. This leads to a lack of inculcation of higher-level cognitive processes in children. In the era of the 4th industrial revolution, new jobs demand that the workforce should have several important skills such as problem-solving, creativity, critical thinking and innovative skill. School education is the right time to impart these skills in young children who are members of the future workforce. Literature shows that several cognitive processes are at the core of these skills. These cognitive processes are also mentioned to be at the heart of the design thinking process, justifying the need for teaching design thinking process at the school education level. In the pedagogic context, the revised Bloom’s taxonomy defines 19 specific cognitive processes and classifies these into 6 major categories. With the help of this taxonomy framework, an attempt has been made to find the association between the instruction for activities within the ‘IISC design thinking’ process (a specific process that aims to optimize design thinking) and the cognitive processes. Results indicate that following the above instructions while performing IISC design thinking activities enable most of the cognitive processes recommended by Bloom, covering all his six categories. This has the potential to support the development of higher-level cognitive skills that are required for the 21st-century workforce.

Paper ID: 498

Modular Communication as a Structure for Sustainability within Social Enterprises

Mehak Gupta (Indian School of Design and Innovation)

Abstract: How can communication designers think systemically, within the context of modular communications, to design for social enterprises aiming to create socio-environmental impact? This research explores modular communications as a structure to empower sustainability within social enterprises; to create social impact through messaging. It contextualises the working of more with less over less with more.
By using a multiple case study approach, (five social enterprises mainly from India, South Africa and Kenya) the findings of which communication strategies work (education, participatory action, positive messaging, action-oriented engagement) and which do not, (negative messaging, blind reliance on social media, no social proof) become core themes. Interviews with the enterprises’ key leaders address the intention and outcome of their messaging.
Thematic analysis was used as a systematic yet flexible approach to achieve the core themes. The study also led to the creation of a diagram to visually analyse the communication touch-points of the enterprises, in modules.
The core themes (as foundation) and modular communication (as structure) together suggest the achievement of sustainability within social enterprises and on-going effectiveness of their communication systems. This paper can act as a guide for designers passionate about creating impactful communication. It sprouts conversations about processes that are required in order to achieve the desired end-product.

Paper ID: 502

Entrepreneurs Motivations for Selecting Homestay Businesses: Special Reference to Ella, Sri Lanka

Chathuri Piumika Danthanarayana (University College of Matara), Tissa Gallegama Archchige Hirusha Chathuri Amarawansha (Uva Wellassa University) and Pahala Gamage Madhushani Sewwandika Kumari Gamage (Uva Wellassa Univeristy)

Abstract: Sri Lankan tourism industry is one of the key important sectors to develop within the country. Ella is one of the destinations which has recently become popularized with its attractive and unique geographical features, chilling climate and authentic local lifestyle. Homestay accommodation is playing a major role in fulfilling an excess demand for accommodation in Ella and it is contributing to the economy of small and medium entrepreneurs (SMEs). The main objective of this study is analyzing push and pull motivation factors of entrepreneurs to select homestay business in Ella. Primary data has collected from fifty homestay entrepreneurs and researcher used semi-structured questionnaire to collect data. Confirmatory factor analysis has used to analyze the data. The study revealed that to generate additional income is the primary push factor that is pushing entrepreneurship by negative external factors. Enjoyable things to do in the home-stay accommodation business can be identified as the main pull factor which is attracting entrepreneurs to homestay businesses. Apart from that this study identified some issues and challenges which entrepreneurs have to face when they are doing homestay businesses such as lack of security, lack of facilities, competition with unregistered homestay operators, lack of service orientation, difficult to maintain the standards, not enough training to manage homestays, language barriers, lack of cross-cultural understanding, lack of brand image and marketing activities, lack of accessibility for transportation and communication and lack of monitoring from the ministry and Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority (SLTDA). Basically this study reveals the reasons of entrepreneurs to start homestay businesses in Ella, Sri Lanka. Relevant authorized parties can be involved and analyses the challenges and issues of homestay entrepreneurs and required to give solutions for them as well. Finally, this study suggests innovative practices for homestay entrepreneurs to face identified challenges and problems and become more unique businesses in the industry.

Paper ID: 506

in undergraduate education across South Asian Universities

Shakuntala Acharya (Indian Institute of Science (IISc)), Apoorv Naresh Bhatt (Indian Institute of Science (IISc)), Amaresh Chakrabarti (Indian Institute of Science (IISc)), Venkata Sk Delhi (Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (IITB)), Jan Carel Diehl (Delft University of Technology), Nelson Mota (Delft University of Technology), Andrius Jurelionis (Kaunas University of Technology) and Riina Subra (Aalto Global Impact, Aalto University). Design Thinking as a strategy to inculcate Problem-based Learning (PBL)

Abstract: The Bologna declaration states that, “successful learning and studying in higher education should involve students in deep learning”. However, a survey of faculty across institutes in Nepal and Bhutan highlight that the undergraduate students in engineering and management lack skills needed to be industry ready. They face difficulty in getting employed after graduation and if placed, then struggle during their employment due to insufficient practical experience, lack of good communication skills and unawareness of larger socio-economic contexts.
Undergraduate curricula across these South Asian institutes are predominantly instructional and not adequately hands-on, due to the following constraints ;
• University directed lesson plans that offer Educators little avenue for incorporating changes,
• Heavy syllabi to cover within that lesson plan and restricted time for practical activities, that constraint both Educators and students
• Dearth of motivation in students to innovate during the stipulated practical hours within a course,
• A general lack of awareness on sustainable development goals and their local implications in the students
• Fewer collaborations and less number of co-instructors to guide in practical, real-world issues that can be addressed in course durations.
The Erasmus+ funded project, “Strengthening Problem-based learning in South Asian Universities” is an endeavour to address these pressing concerns in education quality, employability and overall sustainable development of the region, and to imbibe deep learning capabilities. Problem-based learning (PBL) is a leaner-centered approach (Savery,1999) where students strive to resolve real world problems(Torp and Sage, 2002). PBL methods are reported to support the development of specific skills, such as, critical thinking, complex problem solving, self-learning, collaboration and people management, communication etc. (Duch, Groh and Allen, 2001) that are also recognised as top skills by the World Economic Forum (2016). And though studies have revealed that the ‘level of knowledge tested’, as a learning outcome, was found to be equivalent to that of traditional approaches, students who experienced PBL showed; (i) improvement in problem-solving skills ( Albanese and Mitchell, 1993; Vernon and Blake,1993) and (ii) increased engagement and motivation to learn, as they preferred PBL to the traditional methods of teaching (Denton, Adams, Blatt, & Lorish, 2000; Torp & Sage, 2002).
Therefore, as an empirical study to assess the above and in turn, inculcate problem-based learning in South Asian Universities, the young faculty of the inexperienced institutes from Nepal and Bhutan, alongside the students from the experienced institutes from India and Europe, were mentored by faculty and researchers from the latter to undertake several multidisciplinary case studies. The strategy of ‘Design Thinking’ was employed to methodologically guide the cases and keep it consistently problem-based, i.e., the learning process is driven by the problem and there is no one correct solution (Hmelo-Silver, 2004). Results showed that the participants reflected improvement in problem-solving skills and increased motivation, apart from enhanced collaboration and communication ability. Based on these findings, further development of curricula to imbibe PBL in its existing courses and guidelines to train the trainers for implementation of the same, is currently in progress.

Paper ID: 507

Rethinking Tuberculosis Diagnostics in Low-Resource Areas

Geetika Garg (School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi), Aditi Singh (School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi) and Parag Anand (School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi)

Abstract: Medical devices play a crucial role in enabling healthcare providers. In India, about 75% of these devices are imported from other countries. While this ensures that we reap the benefits of their advancing technologies, these devices are expensive and do not suit the Indian market and masses. To bridge this gap, design can be a critical facilitator to translate said technologies into affordable, easy to use solutions, suitable to the unique requirements of countries like India. Consider this:
Tuberculosis is a communicable disease most commonly affecting the lungs of a person. According to WHO, it was one of the 10 deadliest diseases in 2018, causing about 1.5 million deaths, worldwide. To curb this disease, WHO has set 2030 as the deadline to eradicate TB completely. India, too, has set in motion an extensive plan to eradicate TB by 2025.
In its latent form, the TB causing Mycobacterium could exist in a person without causing the disease. However, combined with any disease affecting the immune system, such as HIV, diabetes, TB could rapidly complicate the health condition and be fatal.
TB, in its active state, displays symptoms that could easily be mistaken for common flu, thus preventing people, especially from remote rural areas in countries of high TB burden (like India) from accessing formal healthcare facilities.
Additionally, most commonly used TB diagnostic tests require an elaborate laboratory set up. The accuracy of execution of these tests is highly dependent on either a highly qualified healthcare provider or sophisticated automation techniques.
The invention in this paper, called ‘MycoKit’, pertains to molecular analysis of sputum to deliver accurate and quick results based on the presence of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. It has been designed keeping ergonomic considerations and human error minimisation at its core, with intuitive interface and easy operation such that literate members from local communities itself, when equipped with a brief training, would be able to perform molecular testing on-site. Thus, community healthcare workers like ASHA, who form an important link between rural public and primary healthcare centre, can be trained to perform confirmatory TB diagnosis on-site.
MycoKit primarily consists of a main machine with modules for mechanical lysing of sample and PCR, and disposable Sputum Collection and Preparation container (SCP), intended to collect sputum sample and to prepare it for mechanical lysing. While the PCR machine is battery operated, a manually driven sample preparation and mechanical lysing method has been incorporated to minimize dependence on electric power and sophisticated automation, making it ideal for electricity scarce remote areas. The entire process is tracked and recorded, end to end, to minimize errors in reporting of test results and for database generation in remote areas. The interface also makes it easy for healthcare providers to take follow ups from potentially ill patients.
By smart and efficient design, sophisticated technologies, used routinely in high-end healthcare setups, can be translated to be used effectively at the grass root levels, thereby ensuring that diseases like TB, that go unnoticed and unnotified be diagnosed, reported and treated.

Paper ID: 509

A study on design of an illustrated book for communicating maternal and child health to semiliterate rural women of Kanpur, India

Rohit Kumar (Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur) and Shatarupa Thakurta Roy (Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur)

Abstract: In this study, maternal health care illustration book design to convey the message and create awareness on key maternal and child health problems to semi-literate rural pregnant women were developed and evaluated.
Appropriate maternal and child health care information was collected, segregated, and conceptualized for the book design. The book design process included initial pencil sketches followed by refinement and digital rendering visual with color on Photoshop software. Finally, adding text messages to support visuals.
The evaluation experiment was conducted on one hundred and six rural pregnant women along with the assistance of ASHA (Accredited social health activist) workers. The study was conducted at rural health center in Kanpur, India and followed by pre-test and post-test on two groups, one control and one experimental. Participants were chosen randomly under control and experimental group, 53 pregnant women to each group. Pregnant women in the intervention group received maternal and child health illustration book as visual information aid. A comparison result showed that pregnant women in the experimental group received a significant higher score than the control group in terms of comprehension of message and compliance.

Paper ID: 512


Tarun Verma (National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli) and Padmanaban Gopalakrishnan (National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli)

Abstract: Daylighting plays a major role in the design of lecture halls. Architects and designers take advantage of daylight in lecture halls to enhance visual comfort and energy efficiency by using daylighting simulation tools. Daylight simulations provide with the ability to compare many design parameters and optimise design alternatives to promote visual comfort and energy efficiency. Still, daylight is not commonly combined with the artificial lighting in buildings as there is a lack of information and documentation on daylighting simulation tools to assess the energy-saving potential in buildings. This study aims to bridge the gap between the use of daylighting simulation tools and evaluating the energy-saving potential of daylighting in buildings by using a single objective optimisation approach. Twelve lecture halls were selected, and five retrofitting strategies were analysed to enhance the daylighting performance and optimise the artificial lighting consumption of the lecture halls. The simulation results showed 58-95% energy savings after applying the retrofitting strategies. Similarly, the daylight autonomy increased from 40% to 89% for lecture hall G5 and 14% to 51% for lecture hall G12. The DA was found as a good performance indicator and showed a positive correlation with energy savings.

Paper ID: 515

Evaluation of Retrofitting strategies to optimize thermal performance of naturally ventilated classrooms: A simulation- based approach

Niveditha Sudarsanam (National Institute of Technology, TIruchirappalli) and Kannamma D (National Institute of Technology, TIruchirappalli)

Abstract: The thermally comfortable environment in classrooms is significant to improve the performance and productivity of students. A substantial number of researches emphasize energy-saving potential, especially for forthcoming projects, whereas existing buildings in the world consume 40% of the energy to meet the desired indoor comfort conditions. Passive retrofitting strategies provide opportunities for reducing energy consumptions to achieve sustainability in the existing buildings. Presently, architects and designers are taking advantage of building simulation tools that can compare and optimize design alternatives before the installation. The objective of this study is to analyze the performance of twenty-two combinations of retrofitting solutions to optimize the thermal performance of existing classrooms in the Architecture Department located in Tiruchirappalli, India, by using a simulation-based approach. The simulation results showed that Retrofitting Strategy 1 (RS1- Expanded polystyrene + Shading device option 1+ Night ventilation) was performed better among all other strategies to achieve maximum comfort hours (three times more than the actual comfort hours). However, Retrofitting Strategy 5 (RS5- Shading device option 1 + Night ventilation) was found as a cost-effective strategy which does not include any insulating materials. Retrofitting strategies such as the insulating materials and the shading devices were effective only with night ventilation.

Paper ID: 519

SEED: Storytelling, Engagement in English language Decoding. Identifying features in learning tools that aid in English decoding amongst learners

Aishwary Khobragade (Indian Institute of Technology Bombay)

Abstract: English Language learners are introduced to multiple features of learning and storytelling tools that strengthen different areas of language such as vocabulary, pronunciation, etc. Development of such individual characteristics influences in attaining comprehension of the content in the language. We in this study probe the engagement of a learner with features provided by existing learning tools to supplement word decoding ability for English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners of India. A week long experiment was conducted with three learning tools, namely, LETS Storybooks, LETS Application and Microsoft's Immersive reader. The focus of the experiment was to check for reading engagement with the learning tools and assess their features affecting the decoding skills for EFL learners. The paper discusses strategies used by the learners to decode a piece of text and the ability of a learning tool to supplement this need. It provides insights with design implications and suggestions for the features that could build a learning tool to support EFL learners achieve word decoding abilities.

Paper ID: 523

in undergraduate education : Design Thinking to Re-design Courses

Shakuntala Acharya (Indian Institute of Science), Apoorv Naresh Bhatt (Indian Institute of Science), Amaresh Chakrabarti (IISc Bangalore), Venkata Santosh Kumar Delhi (Indian Institute of Technology Bombay), Jan Carel Diehl (Delft University of Technology), Ellen van Andel (Delft University of Technology), Andrius Jurelionis (Kaunas University of Technology), Laura Stasiuliene (Kaunas University of Technology), Luis De Jussilainen Costa (Aalto University) and Riina Subra (Aalto Global Impact). Problem-based Learning (PBL)

Abstract: Problem-based learning (PBL) is defined as a “focused, experiential learning organized around the investigation and resolution of messy, real-world problems” (Torp and Sage, 2002), in which “students learn through facilitated problem solving that centers on a complex problem that does not have a single correct answer” (Hmelo-Silver, 2004). But it is important to note that PBL is not problem-solving (Savery,2006) alone, but is an “instructional (and curricular) learner-centered approach that empowers learners to conduct research, integrate theory and practice, and apply knowledge and skills to develop a viable solution to a defined problem” (Savery,1999). Barrows (1996) characterises problem-based learning environment by; (a) learning in small groups, (b) a teacher/tutor facilitating group learning, (c) the learning process is initiated by problems, and (d) new information is acquired through self-study. Savery (2006) further recommends the need of commitment of all levels of staff; research and development on the types of problems to be used; design, preparation and revision of learning resources; and appropriate assessment methods and evaluation strategies. Dolomons (2016) study, across curriculum-wide PBL implementation and single-course PBL implementation, noted similar findings to the earlier studies, where PBL has profound implications on the motivations of the student to learn, stating that “the freedom to select their (students) own resources to answer the learning issues, which gives them ownership over their learning”, and has capability to foster deep learning. In the undergraduate scenario for PBL implementation at a course-level curriculum, Caswell (2017) discusses the workflow of a module and identifies various roles between student or peer-teacher and teacher-educator, one of which is collaborating-instructor or mentor. Therefore, for continued motivation towards learning, the key elements of a successful PBL implementation are; anchoring all learning activities to a larger task or problem; selection of ill-structured, preferably inter-disciplinary problem; ownership of the problem and process, with an enhanced understanding of context; self-directed learning through engaged problem-finding and solving; and mentored learning (Savery and Duffy, 1995; Savery, 1997, 1999).
Therefore, to introduce PBL methods into the existing courses, presently taught at the participating South Asian institutes from Nepal and Bhutan, and redesign it to gain the above mentioned benefits offered by the approach, a novel strategy of conducting a design thinking workshop was engaged. In the 5-day workshop, faculty from the participating institutes, who are most well aware of the challenges, shortcomings and strengths of their curriculum, were mentored step-by-step, through the iterative process of design. Backed by the strategy of Design Thinking, the complex problem-solving activity of course design was addressed systematically, beginning with, problem identification and requirement generation; ideation and solution consolidation; evaluation, prototyping, testing; and eventually, selection of a feasible solution for implementation. As a result of the workshop, the five participating institutes proposed re-designed courses and are currently in the process of implementing the same in their respective institutes.

Paper ID: 527

Virtual Reality Based Fire Safety Training for the Indian Context

Alan Sha (School of Design, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies Dehradun), Anmol Srivastava (School of Design, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies Dehradun), Madhav Haldia (University of petroleum and energy studies Dehradun), Pranav Kumar (University of petroleum and energy studies Dehradun) and Pankaj Badoni (University of petroleum and energy studies Dehradun)

Abstract: A large number of fire-accidents occur across India every year due to appalling status of fire-safety measures and general laxity among the public. This paper explores the potential of virtual reality (VR) to educate and raise awareness amongst the masses about precautionary measures of fire-safety. The VR experience is primarily targeted for non-fire fighters. A user-centred design approach was adopted to identify various problems faced at the time of fire emergencies. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and online surveys were utilized for data collection. Based on insights gained from analysing the collated data, VR experiences were prototyped utilizing Google Cardboard and HTC Vive. The prototypes educate the user about the use of fire-extinguishers and behaviour of smoke. As a nation-wide lockdown was declared while this study was being conducted, the user-testing could not be carried out. Hence, this paper primarily relies on the insights gained from user-research and published literatures.

Paper ID: 533

Redefining Design Education for 21st century

Madhura Yadav (School of Architecture and Design, Manipal University Jaipur, India)

Abstract: Design is everywhere and an integral part of our lives. It is a passion for our 'feel-good factor' adding excellence and efficiency in our ac-tivities. Increasing complexity has made design education more chal-lenging. In the process of development, design extended into various disciplines like architecture, planning, fashion, textiles, graphics, vis-ual communications, fine arts, interiors, multimedia & jewelry, etc. All these design disciplines have design principles common in them, but attributes change as per the discipline. These disciplines mark their presence independently and have been consistently synergizing each other to create a newer vision. There has been a need for re-inventing design education. An interdisciplinary approach in Design is vital for excellence and furtherance of know-how in allied fields. To bridge the distance between the disciplines, we have been devel-oping a design education model at Manipal University Jaipur (MUJ). The paper will evaluate the model of design education and give rec-ommendations.

Paper ID: 535

Do Design Entrance Exams in India Really Test Creative Aptitude? An Analytical Study of Design Tests Conforming Creativity Benchmarks

Nandita Bhanja Chaudhuri (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati), Debayan Dhar (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati) and Pradeep G. Yammiyavar (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati)

Abstract: Design entrance exams are common nowadays for securing admission to Design schools in India, be it private or public institutes. Students are often examined during these competitive exams to test their creative aptitude. Over the years, format of Design entrance exams in India has gone through innumerable changes. In some formats, objective questions are preferred, in some subjective tests are conducted, while few prefer a combination of bothLack of a standardized format of testing creativity across Design schools in India, unlike engineering and medical colleges, raises questions like: 1) Do these Design entrance tests really capture creativity to its fullest? 2) Do they conform to any standardized format of creativity testing? The study reported in this paper intends to investigate these questions by conducting a detailed comparative study of existing entrance exam formats of Design Schools of India. A detailed analytical approach by using affinity mapping and generating open codes was used to classify and categorize question formats of different Indian Design entrance exams. The open codes were then mapped with the extracted factors of the literature review with an objective to identify the factors confirming to creativity evaluation. The results highlight that existing entrance exam, while capturing major factors for creativity evaluation, lacks in capturing a few essential factors that provide greater insight into the creative instincts of an individual assesse. A model for standardization of creativity assessment has also been suggested based on the study results. This study would provide new light into the nature of Design based entrance examinations in India and might lead the way towards a standardized Design entrance exam in the future.

Paper ID: 536

A Comparative Study of Design Methodologies to Integrate Ergonomics Requirements into Design

Krishna Chaitanya Mallampalli (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati), Debayan Dhar (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati) and Swati Pal (Industrial Design Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay)

Abstract: During recent decades, due to demand for customer-oriented product design, designers and manufacturers have been more attentive to define customer requirements during initial stage of design process. As such, importance of integrating ergonomics, particularly for capturing customer requirements, has become an essential activity. Literature provides evidence of numerous studies focusing on various design methodologies that are helpful for incorporating customer requirements at initial design stage. However, existence of multiple design methodologies makes it difficult for designers to choose one over the other. Further, ambiguity among designers while selecting any one of these me-thodologies may lead to an unnecessary increase in lead-time for product design process. Therefore, in order to address this specific issue, a comparative review study across design methodologies with an objective to integrate ergonomics requirements has been conducted and reported here. The focus of the study is on integrating ergonomics requirements in design in initial design stages, specifically to include conceptual design, embodiment design, and detailed design. This paper reports a critical analysis of the applicability of these methodologies. The outcome of the study would be beneficial for designers (with an intention to contribute towards ergonomic led innovation) to choose design methodologies judiciously and importance of customer requirements capturing at the initial stage of the design process.

Paper ID: 537


William Siew (Singapore University of Technology and Design), Belinda Yuen (Singapore University of Technology and Design) and Arlindo Silva (Singapore University of Technology and Design)

Abstract: In a rapidly ageing society where one in ten persons aged 60 and above is expected to be affected by dementia in Singapore by 2030 (Vaingankar, 2015), current statistics have shown that the effectiveness of support for persons with dementia (PWDs) and their caregivers is between average and below average (Ching, 2019). This is happening even though community networks and resources are there to support caregivers and PWDs. The local literature has shown the complexity in caring and supporting families of PWD, which encompasses a multitude of issues, from attitude and awareness to economics, living arrangement and management of care. More can be done on evaluating the effectiveness of programmes and reducing society’s stigma towards dementia (Rashith, 2019) and to alleviate caregivers’ burnout and burden of care through greater perceived self-efficacy and better coping strategies, support and interventions, which can in turn improve the quality of life of PWDs and their caregivers (Tay, et al., 2016). Furthermore, social support and network, including social media (Leist, 2013), can potentially reduce physical and functional decline (Unger, McAvay, Bruce, Berkman, & Seeman, 1999), and persons in locally integrated social support networks are less likely of developing dementia as compared to those in the family-dependent support network (Lau, et al., 2019). Since 2018, the Agency for Integrated Care has set up eight Dementia-Friendly Communities (DFCs) island-wide, introduced the dementia friends/ champions, and developed a Dementia Friends mobile app to provide access to resources and help for caregivers and PWDs. Mobile technologies can provide different resources and strategies to help PWDs and their caregivers (Yousaf, 2019), but the problem lies with not knowing where are the cracks to fill in order to design a more targeted approach in meeting the needs and expectations of PWDs and their caregivers.
The purpose of this paper is to suggest the relevance of a systems approach to supporting the families of PWD and discovering the barriers to mobile-based technology-enabled information and support services. In particular, the current research study looks at examining the usage of the Dementia Friends mobile app and determine its effectiveness of meeting user needs and expectations for mobile-based technology-enabled information and support services in caregiving of PWD in Singapore. The study will survey and interview participants from households with single caregiver and households with multiple caregivers, who are both digitally and non-digitally resourceful, with the aim of identifying gaps and suggesting opportunities for innovation through mobile-based technologies.
The current study hopes to bring new findings, theories and methods in validating the current use of mobile technologies in caregiving of PWD. Future work will involve seeking like-minded individuals to join this effort in identifying the barriers that caregivers face when accessing information and support services in Singapore for future social innovations, and potentially carrying these findings over to other communities and settings worldwide.

Paper ID: 538

Innovation by Design – A new post-graduate program at SUTD

Arlindo Silva (Singapore University of Technology and Design) and Lucienne Blessing (Singapore University of Technology and Design)

Abstract: Design thinking has been gaining importance in training and education worldwide. However, training and education in design thinking has mostly found a place in short courses and executive education initiatives. Although there is enormous value in short courses and executive education, they often lack the depth required to effectively practice the tools and methods learned. Furthermore, design is a strategic investment for both companies [1] and countries [2], the particular focus of this paper being Singapore.
At the Singapore University of Technology and Design, a new Master of Engineering (MEng) program has been set up to address this perceived gap in education. The MEng program in Innovation by Design (MIbD) is a research-based program that takes design thinking and design innovation to the level of other post graduate programs in other areas worldwide. It further develops the SUTD design ethos [3,4] toward a post-graduate level. It contains a comparatively reduced coursework load and instead focuses on research and development projects where the tools and methods delivered in the courses are actively used. The structure of the program is such that there are only three compulsory full-credit courses (green and red in Figure 1) and a significant number of electives (dark blue in Figure 1) that students can take to scaffold their research work. These are complemented by three experiences (short, no more than one-week long workshops and seminars, spread around the first year, in light blue in Figure 1).
The three experiences consist of
• the design accelerator, a three-day workshop to get all the students up to speed in terms of tools and methods of design and the 4D (discover-define-develop-deliver) design model;
• the overseas experience, an immersion week for co-development with students from other countries and backgrounds (done this year at the School of Design, Jiangnan University, China);
• and the entrepreneurship accelerator, a three-day workshop on how to develop start-ups, IP and business oriented topics.
The first intake of this program was in September 2019. A total of 30 students were selected (20 male and 10 female), 25 being full-time and 5 part-time. 24 scholarships were given, and one student is being supported by his company. The students come from 7 countries (Singapore, Sri Lanka, India, China, Tanzania, Colombia and Indonesia) and have backgrounds in e.g. Robotics, IOT, Chemistry, Materials, Ageing/Healthcare, Drones/UAV, Food Science, Design, Sports, Mechanics, Electronics and Education. This intended diversity in background and culture enriches the learning and design process. By the end of the Master, each student will have completed a minimum of 5 full-length projects, from discover to deliver. Those taking electives may have done even more.
Two terms into the program, the balance is extremely positive. The program has been very well received in several presentations to companies. It is expected that these students will either start their own business or find jobs easily in a context that is craving for people with this formal education, a very broad view of design, and the ability to implement it.

Paper ID: 539

Measuring Design in Businesses and Government - A framework to measure design impact

Ashreya M Venkatesh (Singapore University of Technology and Design), Kristin L Wood (Singapore University of Technology and Design) and Arlindo Silva (Singapore University of Technology and Design)

Abstract: Design is getting largely adopted by both the private and public sector due to the significant and lasting economic and social value created with its integration. As such, projects and initiatives that are design focused are increasingly being undertaken by businesses and the government in Singapore. However, there is only a nascent understanding of how the impact of design should be measured, leading to potentially inaccurate and/or incomplete way(s) of communicating the importance of design and the value it contributes. The objective is to develop a singular comprehensive framework to help businesses and the government in Singapore be able to measure and communicate effectively the outcomes of their design initiatives considering scale, timeframe, scope of impact, political, societal, cultural and environmental factors – and not limited to only financial returns. Being able to successfully and effectively communicate the outcome(s) and impact of design using this framework will allow teams, companies, businesses and the government to understand the value of design better, thus, encouraging adoption of design to a larger extent and across more industries in the nation.

Paper ID: 541

Enhancing User Experience of E-commerce Platforms – A Case Study of Indian B2C Applications

Megha Agrawal (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati) and Debayan Dhar (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati)

Abstract: The Indian e-commerce industry is rapidly growing. One of the major contrib-uting factors towards the success of these companies is the quality of user ex-perience their platforms provide. The study reported in this paper primarily fo-cuses on India’s top B2C organizations and the role of definitive user experi-ence elements in shaping the success of these organizations. A heuristic based comparative study was conducted among the top e-commerce web applica-tions in order to identify unique features that contribute to a sumptuous user-experience. The analytical study was backed up by user studies that report the expectation of the customers and their frustrations. The collective insights were then correlated to each platform’s market ranking and share with an objective to identify and analyze features, design cues and elements that contribute to their standing in the Indian market. In a nutshell, the qualitative study explores connections between market ranking, usability heuristics and user study in-sights in order to prescribe design features, cues and elements that benchmark the user experience framework for B2C applications in an Indian context. The insights elaborate on the current trends, gaps and opportunity areas for B2C applications.

Paper ID: 542

21st Century Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management in the Garment Manufacturing Industry

Meeta Gawri (Punjab University) and Shweta Sharma (Punjab University)

Abstract: Fashion is said to be monitored across the continents through cyclic trends in rejuvenation and re-establishment of innovations across the colour palette and design board. The 21st century has added an entirely new dimension to the mechanisms of garment manufacturing, the garments being manufactured as also the demand for these and newer forms of garments. There has emerged a wide gap in the world of yarns, fabrics and clothes. The expectations of the consumers have touched the zenith with their demands for bio-tolerant, eco-friendly and environment conducive clothes that are suitable for varying climates and varying situations of human occupation and endeavour.
The consumer in the current century is as conscientious of fashion and its trends as the people in the past centuries. There is, however, a tremendous gap in the functionality, embellishments, sourcing and sales of the creations of designers then and now. Another change that has taken the fashion world by storm is that prêt-a-portier has become as significant as haute couture with brand exclusivity being the new coinage of the fashion realm. The crème de la crème of society are increasingly following the brand band wagon as world class names like Chanel, Nike, Adidas, Pyramid and the likes are taking large strides on the fashion ramp walks across the globe. The concepts of outwear being replaced by innerwear comfort wear and casual wear are currently fast displacing the erstwhile formals. This is also true because a large part of the traditional, natural materials like silks, cotton and such like are constantly being replaced by rayons and their chemically created counterparts with spandex and lyra being the temporally recent additions. It has been observed that the 21st century stands poised to witness an unprecedented revolution in fashion and its manifestations right down to the grass roots level. There are numerous innovation taking place. It is the judious management of these innovations that occupies the full attention of those in the fashion industry spread cross the continents. Many of the techniques being adopted by the industry captains require intensive training and orientation to obtain optimum usefulness. There is a whole new arena of knowledge that needs to be percolated through the garment design and manufacturing stages. The academic institutions as also the garment manufacturing industry has to measure up to these emerging challenges.
There are a number of other developments that are sure to have a lasting impact on the fashion industry fortunes in the coming years. The promotion of micro, mini and full fledged enterprises devoted to feeding the world of creative garments and home décor is becoming visible gradually. Rural women and youth based traditional industrial occupation’s are being encouraged to diversify and feed the growing fashion industry. The focus of this paper is on examining the need for entrepreneurship and innovation management under this conceptual premise. The scope for encouraging enterprise through innovation management is the next learning curve for the world of garment design and manufacture.

Paper ID: 544

Manufacturing to Super-Finishing Jewellery Articles: A Study to Define Surface Quality Parameters and Understanding their Inter-relationship

Parag Vyas (Grau Bar Design) and Nitya Vyas (Grau Bar Design)

Abstract: Indian jewellery industry is rapidly adapting new manufacturing methods that give intricate forms with relative ease. Investment casting is one of such processes, well suited for small to medium sized objects. Jewellery surface is seldom flat, generally a small curvature is given to a shape, making it polish friendly. Many such features of form are integral to jewellery design which make them pleasant to touch, aesthetically appealing and visually attractive.
These intricacies appeal to potential clients, but at the same time details make an article difficult to finish. Interplay of surfaces creates nooks, corners and crevices between adjoining forms & features. Furthermore, it makes articulation of a target finish difficult, as a result word Finish, means different things to different people. An individual’s interpretation is also different and often leads to dissonance and painful rework. Most common, singular, remedial measure adapted in response to a demand for a better finish is more work at polish lathe. This method not necessarily improves finish, sometimes it distorts surface or makes it wavy in appearance.
Some parallels can be drawn from the domain of mechanical engineering where rather than defining surface finish, a measurable aspect such as surface roughness is an indicator of target finish. This method of measurement brings in empiricism and provides a tool to measure, finish through one of its pointers low surface roughness. Waviness of a surface is second aspect and that too can be methodically evaluated. The third aspect is the direction of lay, though defined, but rather subjective in a way. These can be adapted with modifications in defining target finish on an article of jewellery.
The need of time is to identify, catalogue and define various aspects of surface finish and put them in right perspective for use by industry professionals and academic institutions.

Paper ID: 545

Investigating the Surface Finishing to Develop an Advanced Process for Super-Finish, highlighted by Benchwork and Polish Lathe in Jewellery Making

Parag Vyas (Grau Bar Design) and Nitya Vyas (Grau Bar Design)

Abstract: Indian jewellery manufacturing scenario is rapidly changing its working ways. As compared to traditional way of an artisan’s lodge, where few people work collectively, it has taken shape of an organized shop floor of a precision engineering division. Work is defined, articulated and results are expected within a given time frame.
There are different departments in a setup ranging from casting (miniature articles arranged around a central armature, called tree in common parlance) to sprue cutting and polishing. Though a person needs to be aware of whole process, one focuses and works in a small segment in these long chain of processes for achieving productivity and efficiency of time.
There are two sensitive areas that effect finish of a product, an article of jewellery, in a major way. These are Benchwork where components are put together assembled and semi-finished and at polish lathe. Method of giving a finish to a jewellery surface in both these areas is Mechanical Removal of material to reveal nascent metal Surface. Method is using an abrasive tool, Bonded abrasive or loosely applied fine particulate medium to achieve target finish parsimoniously.
There are merits in using abrasive processes minimally, as lesser the gold removed from the surface, lesser are operational losses. Industry, therefore, is in a need of processes that give optimal acceptable level of finish on surface of gold and other jewellery, with minimal operational losses.
There is lack of standardization, and calibration of process and different people approach target finish differently. This often leads to non-concurrence between bench workers and shop floor supervisors as well as quality assurance. Often leading to rework or work loss.
This paper is giving a structure by which a process best suited for a specific article can be designed and horizontally deployed through shop floor.

Paper ID: 546

Role of age in perceiving car’s attractiveness_ A case study in Indian Context

Jetti Rahul (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati) and Debayan Dhar (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati)

Abstract: Cars were means of luxury till the late ’90s, but now they have become a com-mon need [1], which led to increase in car production. In the process of develop-ing and selling cars, form and functionality both become mature over a period of time. These comprehensive varieties of car designs have provided an opportunity for customers to choose a car to their liking at their affordance. Usually personali-ty and financial status influences the car purchase behaviour, but barely we know the effect of age on car selection. Literature highlights a significant number of studies that have focused on evaluation of car form, that specifically investigated it’s perception among a target group. However, there have been very few studies that focused on the role of age and its effect on perceived attractiveness of a car. The study reported in this paper presents an ethnographic investigation along with a small experiment to identify and observe the role of age in influencing per-ceived car attractiveness. A total of 166 persons who own a car and are from the age group of 18-60 years have been interviewed in the study. A detailed qualita-tive report was generated from the interviews and it was analysed to draw in-sights. Results acquired from both the qualitative and quantitative studies high-lights that age affects the perceived attractiveness of cars. Further, design cues were extracted to develop a prescriptive framework suggesting motifs that influ-ence a particular age group. The study results would be particularly helpful for automotive designers as they can correlate design motifs and cues with particular age groups, and thus it would support them in taking informed design decisions to optimise the design process.

Paper ID: 547

Affecting Technology Consumption- Role of Designers in ushering behaviour change

Arzoo Khare (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati) and Debayan Dhar (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati)

Abstract: User-Centered Designers study user behaviours, to create products
that fetch maximum adoption and longer loyalty. All this has led to an
increased emphasis on user engagement. Often the ill-impact on the user gets
overshadowed by business goals. The study presented in this paper focuses on
digital wellbeing of the user and how designers can aid in developing tools to
equip the users. A detailed literature review is conducted so as to highlight the
inconsistencies of existing digital media that fail to address the issue of digital
wellbeing. They highlight factors other than lacking self-control that lead to
uncontrolled tech consumption. The literature review is then followed by a
qualitative research study that investigates current mobile usage and its
discontinuation pattern. Combining insights from the literature and the
exploratory study with users, the study finally suggests unique approaches that
designers and the mobile industry can adopt to design for disengagement. The
findings of the study can contribute to understanding the middle ground that
looks out for the user's wellbeing without compromising on businesses and

Paper ID: 548

From Industrial Design to Healthcare Innovation- A comparative study on the role of User Centered Design and Stanford Biodesign process

Neelarnab Dutta (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati) and Debayan Dhar (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati)

Abstract: User Centered Design (UCD) process is a comprehensive and widely accepted methodology practiced by designers across numerous areas of specializations like product design, user experience design, interaction design, web design etc. The central philosophy of this approach is to empathize with the user at various design decisions in order to fulfil user requirements. Like UCD approach, the Stanford Biodesign process is also an accepted and widely used framework specifically for health technology innovation. UCD philosophy and the Stanford Biodesign process both lay strong emphasis on deep understanding of user(s) and stakeholders as their basis for focused ideation and development. However, health technology innovation brings additional challenges and constraints in its course of design and development, which not only require to satisfy user requirements but also clinical and demographic requirements for successful healthcare implementation. This paper discloses such challenges of health technology design and development and synthesize the requirements that needs to be considered in a design methodology. Later, based on these requirements the paper compared both Stanford Biodesign process and UCD process in terms of methodological effectiveness for highly sensitive healthcare innovation. The paper also highlights issues where UCD approach fails to address some of the requirements for healthcare innovation and suggests additional contexts and stages to be considered by a UCD practitioner as an easy adaptation for healthcare design projects.

Paper ID: 549

Study & Revival strategies for Traditional Art Form – Case of Sindhudurg

Priyanka Mangaonkar-Vaiude (Ecour Studio) and Minu Joshi (Ecour Studio)

Abstract: India is a country well known for its skill and handmade. As per the research data, despite having a rich heritage of traditional manufacturing skills, India's share in the international market for craft is less than 2%, while that of China stands at 30%. According to the United Nations, over the past three decades, the number of Indian artisans has decreased by 30%. These alarming numbers indicate the need to reinvest in artisans, to safeguard our history, culture, traditional knowledge, and an important source of livelihood. The pressing problem faced by the Indian craft sector today is to create an ecosystem that benefits all stakeholders in the value chain and help to sustain the craft and the craftsperson. Apart from the above-mentioned issue, there are various other challenges like availability of raw material, issue of mass production and time, availability of correct market value, etc. Hence there is an urgent need that we, as designers, understand these issues and try to create a favorable environment for the craft to sustain. This paper is an attempt to identify these issues related to the survival of a craft, by taking a case study of the dying art of traditional wooden toy craft & Ganjifa cards of Sawantwadi in the Konkan region of Maharashtra. This research paper is based on the primary data obtained by personal, telephonic, and online interviews of artisans, people promoting handicrafts, and buyers. Secondary data from published research papers, journals, books, articles, and governmental data from online platforms have also been analyzed.

Paper ID: 556

Design for immersive experience: Role of spatial audio in extended reality applications

Ganesh Kailas (Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur) and Nachiketa Tiwari (Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur)

Abstract: The incredible growth of eXtended Reality (XR) applications will be leading us to a world beyond our imaginations in the coming decades. Extended Reality is an umbrella term that encompasses different categories of immersive technologies like Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR) and Mixed Reality (MR). From the traditional applications like entertainment and training, XR has been spreading its wings into a large number of applications in healthcare, aerospace, product design and prototyping, e-commerce, workspace productivity, architecture and building industries. Immersibility of the virtual reality scene into the physical world will be crucial for its acceptance by mainstream industries and future development. In addition to the virtual scene's visual perception, spatial audio is a key feature in designing truly immersive XR. Hearing is the fastest sense of humans, which makes virtual auditory display (VAD) an ineluctable part of any XR application. In this work, the importance of three-dimensional spatial audio in XR applications is explored in the user perspective approach. User experience (UX) is improved to a large extent when the applications make use of spatial audio compared to directionless hearing experience. Spatial sound has a crucial role in giving information regarding actions in the background and beyond the field of view (FOV), and thus in making proper three-dimensional realism. However, designing user-dependent virtual audio reality is challenging because of its parametric dependence on human anthropometric features. This work also suggests the possibilities of utilizing computer-aided designing (CAD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools in producing personalized virtual audio reality. While the immersive extended reality experience evolves as the next frontier in user experience designing, a sophisticated 3D audio experience will be there at the heart of it.

Paper ID: 557

Development of Design Heuristics for Furniture Design

Supradip Das (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati) and Amarendra Kumar Das (Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati)

Abstract: Innovation in design is positively influenced by the selection of successful con-cepts from the multiple, varied alternatives generated. Prior research explicated that, Design Heuristics are the prompts, which allows novice designers to gener-ate a number of alternatives and avoid design fixation. However, available Design Heuristics are Industrial and Product Design specific. There are no heuristics available specific to Furniture Design. This paper presents the systematic devel-opment of Design Heuristics for Furniture Design (DHfFD), a concept genera-tion tool for novice furniture designers. The tool has been developed from an analysis of the characteristics of 650 award-winning furniture (chair) designs and published compendium of well-known, successful designs. This paper extends the research on the impact of DHfFD use by investigating the effectiveness of the tool through a pilot study. Initial testing has been done successfully with design students in the Department of Design, IIT Guwahati and has been enthusiastically adopted by students to create concepts that are more diverse. This study correlates DHfFD with more number of alternative concepts in furniture design. This re-search integrates evidence, methods, and perspectives from cognition and design correspondingly provide a pedagogical recommendation to use Design Heuristics for Furniture Design to overcome the issues in innovation in furniture design with the novice designers.

Paper ID: 558

An Augmented Reality Application to teach Human Anatomy to Secondary School Students

Arkoprobho Debnath (University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun, India), Utkarsh Pathak (University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun, India) and Pankaj Badoni (University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun, India)

Abstract: Anatomy is the science that studies the structure of the body. The human body is composed of many different types of cells that together create tissues and
subsequently organ systems. It consists of a number of biological systems that carry out specific functions necessary for everyday living.
Typically, school students start learning about Human Anatomy starting from
standard VI (i.e. between ages 10 - 15 years) and gain a basic idea about all of the important organs and their functions. However, a quick survey reveals that students find it difficult to visualize how human organs look from inside and outside. They also lack an understanding of the basic functions of these organs. Further, as most of the instructional medium is based on a two-dimensional static paper-based medium, it lacks the look and feels of actual organs.
To tackle this problem Augmented Reality (AR) technology was utilized. AR is an interactive experience of a real-world environment that is enhanced by
computer-generated perceptual information, sometimes across multiple sensory
modalities. AR is an easy and feasible solution through which we can see and
understand objects which cannot be seen in the real-world.
The proposed interactive AR application helps students learn about Human Anatomy in details. It allows them to see different organs and their inner structures in the real-world environment through different perspectives and understand their functioning. Initial testing was conducted among N = 10 users between the ages of 10 - 15 years. Usability concerns, willingness to continue usage of AR application and learning outcome were tested. Preliminary results indicate a positive influence of the participants towards adopting the proposed AR solution.

Paper ID: 562

Design of a heart perfusion device for extending preservation time: A case study of risk management for a high-risk medical device

Deval Karia (Centre for Product Design and Manufacturing (CPDM), IISc. Bangalore), Rohit Rathnam (Centre for Product Design and Manufacturing (CPDM), IISc. Bangalore), Aditya Saxena (Centre for Product Design and Manufacturing (CPDM), IISc. Bangalore), Malhar Joshi (Centre for Product Design and Manufacturing (CPDM), IISc. Bangalore), Asitava Ghosal (Centre for Product Design and Manufacturing (CPDM), IISc. Bangalore), Manish Arora (Centre for Product Design and Manufacturing (CPDM), IISc. Bangalore) and Balan Gurumoorthy (Centre for Product Design and Manufacturing (CPDM), IISc. Bangalore))

Abstract: An estimated 50,000 people in India need a heart transplant annually. Today, one of the biggest challenges is practical: moving organs from one hospital to an-other. LifeBox is a device that addresses this problem with a system that extends preservation time of the heart, specifically to allow for increased travel time and distances. It utilizes non-recirculating, intermittent perfusion of non-oxygenated, cardioplegic solution in hypothermic conditions. Preservation conditions of the donor heart directly affect heart health and patient survival. Consequently, the design of the device presents a unique set of risks that must be adequately identi-fied and addressed. This work presents a case study, using LifeBox, that captures the adopted risk management approach. Emphasis has been laid on the pathway to derive requirements that attempt to manage the identified risks. The authors hope that this study will serve as a practical guide for designers, practitioners, and innovators in the medical device industry.

Paper ID: 563


Sunalini Esther (School of Architecture, Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science, Chennai) and Sheeba Chander (School of Architecture, Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science, Chennai)

Abstract: The importance of learning theories is that they expose the learner to a wide spectrum of ideas, thereby expanding the knowledge base while allowing the learners to experiment, analyze and internalize their observations. It allows the reader or the learner to assume different theoretical positions and analyze the theory.
Ideally theory classes enrich design studios because they serve as labs where theories are tested. They are not concerned with the time frame that is required to arrive at a product. Therefore they take away the burden from design studios in terms of experimenting with ideas and various concepts. In all the study of design, the principles, factors and elements that comprise, modify and establish design can be summed into three categories. There are factors that physically comprise design, factors of ephemeral and intangible quality that modify design, and authoritative elements that root design at a particular place in time.
Unravelling the process of design begins with the physical elements. They have been understood as points, lines, planes and volumes or mass. These elements are composed within a field at a macro or micro level through an array of spatial organisations using principles of design such as balance, proportion, hierarchy, etc. Their scope is largely aesthetic. There is a layer of other elements that to a large degree affect the cognition and visual perception of the user experiencing a space or object that is superimposed over the tangible layer of physical elements. These elements may be referred to as ‘Modifying Elements’. The physical elements are rooted within the framework of relevant modifying elements to include factors such as cultural, anthropological and metaphysical. Authoritative elements are the third layer of required super imposition while designing because they firmly root and add soundness to the design, stemming from the essence in theories derived from the past. It is these authoritative elements that will be explored in this paper. Together the study of physical, modifying and authoritative elements give a holistic idea to one embarking in the endeavor of design.
In most cases of theoretical analysis there is a sense of looking backwards - to the study of established facts and the principles that may be gleaned from it. The authoritative elements are specifically that. The word authority has its base in the word author which means someone who has the power to bring something into existence and sustain it. In other words, with respect to design, it is these elements that bring richness to design or add the dimension of depth, so to say. The authoritative elements are history, typology, progress, tradition and design habits. They discuss how design is influenced and established through precedence set in facts from the past. The impact of Authoritative Elements on design will be explored and ascertained in this paper. The methodology of inquiry and research is through survey questionnaire and exercises in the design studio.

Paper ID: 564


Raghu V. Prakash (Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras) and Monalisha Maharana (Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras)

Abstract: Improved mileage and reduced emissions are one of the key challenges that industries are looking forward to overcome. One of the promising strategies identified for this is the weight reduction of the structural components. Owing to these requirements, the recent decades have seen a tremendous increase in the use of fiber-reinforced polymers as candidate materials for structural applications; their high specific strength (strength per unit weight) and specific stiffness (stiffness per unit weight) have made them a desirable material for designers. Further, fiber-reinforced composites offer the advantage of tailor suiting the properties which results in optimization of parameters. In the present work, a typical seat base of a scooter is selected as the potential component for weight reduction through replacement of existing material – viz., polypropylene with advanced composite materials. A systematic approach has been followed in the process which has led to successful design and development of the fiber reinforced seat base for two-wheelers.
Synthetic fibers, such as Glass fiber and Carbon fiber have established themselves as a potential choice for high strength applications. However, these fibers are expensive and non-biodegradable. With growing environment-consciousness, researchers have explored various natural fibers, which have the potential to be used in applications where the components are subjected to lower level of stresses.However, taking into consideration the other aspects such as environmental degradation, one could look for the hybridization of natural fiberswith available synthetic fibers. Design data relating to hybrid composites is scarce in the literature. In view of this, as part of this study, mechanical property characterization of the hybrid natural fiber composites was done.
Stress analysis is one of the major activities as part of the product design. In the present study, a Finite element model of the part is created and the various properties obtained from the material property characterization study areused as inputs for material properties. Non-interactive failure criterion is used to find the failure stress of the material and the design parameter (thickness) is finalized. Based on the results of the Finite Element analysis and the design for manufacturing aspects the CAD model of the product is iterated.
To verify the proof of the concept – viz., seat base with polymer composites, prototyping of the seat base was carried out incorporating the design for manufacture principles relating to polymer composite materials. In view of the limited volume, hand lay-up technique was chosen and the prototype tool developed for the prototype. A test method is used to evaluate the part characteristics with respect to the existing material with a targeted weight reduction of 30%. The prototype was checked for repeatability, stiffness and fit on the existing scooter and was found to be meeting the requirements. A weight saving of close to 40% was achieved through the use of hybrid polymer composite material.

Paper ID: 566

Design, Frugal Innovations and Low-Resource Settings: An Analysis of Five Contextual Aspects

Santosh Jagtap (Blekinge Institute of Technology)

Abstract: Designing frugal innovations is crucial to alleviate problems faced by people living in low resource settings. Many design studies have been undertaken in such low resource settings. These studies are discussed using a variety of names such as ‘frugal innovations’, ‘appropriate technology’, ‘design for the Base of the Pyramid’, ‘product service systems’, ‘community development engineering’, ‘design for development’, etc. There is an important need to know in what context these studies were undertaken. In order to gain an in-depth understanding of the contextual aspects of these studies, we review a wide range of literature, focusing on design studies in this field. The review findings show a multifaceted picture, revealing a large variety in examination and presentation of contextual aspects such as income, design sectors, countries, rural-urban, and gender. Based on the review findings, we offer recommendation for practice, education and research of designing frugal innovations in low resource settings.

Paper ID: 567

A Design Approach on Transmission Architecture Fashioned from Merge Gear-Shifting Strategy for Improving Driving Comfort in Conventional Passenger Vehicle

Manish Chandra (Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur) and Pranab K Dan (Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur)

Abstract: This article presents a design approach in improving driving comfort, a key feature, particularly for passenger vehicle, focused on conventional type, being the largest category and is growing steadily to a big future market with high customer demand. There are several aspects to driving comfort, one of which is concerning the effort or driver’s involvement required in gear-shifting action. The aim of this work has been to achieve the design objective, which is, enhancing comfort by lessening driver’s involvement to provide greater ease and is realized through a two-stage methodology; first, to devise an expedient gear-shifting strategy and then to reconfigure or fashion the transmission gearbox with a compatible multi-clutch layout by modifying the architecture of the existing dual-clutch based one, to enable implementation of the proposed shifting strategy through it. A new shifting strategy, based on merging of speed ratio ranges, as conceived here, is brought about by rearranging the connection of gear trains of the existing reference model and hence, the term merge is used to underscore the strategy. Merge gear-shifting strategy is purposed to address the start-and-stop as well as frequent shifting needs in driving, while retaining engine torque and rpm, gear ratios and vehicle speed as that of existing reference model as common basis, from which the new multi-clutch architecture is reconfigured. Functional requirement, imposed by the Merge shifting strategy, needs compliance of certain constraints; one such is mounting of designated gear members on a particular shaft, and the other, torque carrying capacity, provide information on input and controlling parameters respectively, for design planning. Modifications or redesigning of the architectural layouts of the gearbox are based on reverse engineering approach, as it adopts the scheme of tracing back and built from the reference dual-clutch model. For this purpose, a comprehensive set of possible alternative designs, modeled as stick diagrams, depicting power-flow through the gearbox members, are generated and then only those complying the shifting strategy requirements, upheld as feasible, are screened out based on a couple of criteria, namely, gear mount arrangement and torque transfer consideration. Both the proposed gearbox architecture and the reference model are computationally tested using standard HWFET driving cycle to ascertain the number of shifting instances and it reflects that the former needs nearly sixty percent less effort to drive, providing improved driving comfort. Therefore, the new design exhibits a sound prospect in the category’s market segment.

Paper ID: 570

Effects of Persona Stereotyping on Design Solutions: Observations from an empirical study with novice designers

Abhishek Dahiya (Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi) and Jyoti Kumar (Indian Institute of Technology Delhi)

Abstract: Persona is widely used in the design industry as a tool to understand and empathize with the users. Personas are intended to help designers by providing them useful user information and more importantly helping them remove the personal bias towards their users. However, without proper training and education, the information given in the persona could be misleading resulting in designers not appreciating the benefits of the tool. Such behavior could not only fail the actual purpose of creating a persona but can also be misleading to designers while taking crucial design decisions. With the increase in the number of young designers joining design academics and industry in India, it becomes important to investigate the design behavior of novice designers while working with such tools in the design process. This paper presents observations from an empirical study done with 80 novice designers. The study aimed to investigate how user information presented in the form of a persona affects the conceptual design solutions produced by a novice designer.

Paper ID: 586

The Relationship between the Pose of Virtual Character and the Viewer Emotion

Chun Yang Su (National Cheng Kung University Industrial Design) and Chun Heng Ho (National Cheng Kung University Industrial Design)

Abstract: The posture of a virtual character contributes to animation when a dramatic story is being produced. This research uses the Big Five model, the BFI-44 question-naire, in order for participants to evaluate the personality of seven virtual character postures. The stimuli postures were inspired by the BEAST experiment and were intended to detect emotions based on overall body language. The results show that whole body posture affects a participant’s view of the personality of the virtual character. There were significant differences found among postures in terms of openness, extroversion, and neuroticism traits but this was not the case for postures suggesting conscientiousness and agreeableness traits.

Paper ID: 601

Social Connectedness in Online versus Face to face Design Education: A comparative study in India

Christy Vivek Gogu (Indian Institute of Technology Delhi) and Jyoti Kumar (IIT Delhi)

Abstract: The global pandemic has affected almost every aspect of life across the globe including medical services, essential services, production units and educational institutes. People have been forced to physically and socially isolate themselves. This study focuses on the sudden shift that design schools in India had to make from traditional face to face (F2F) classes to starting virtual classrooms online. This paper reports results from semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with ten design instructors from ten different design schools across India. The authors attempt to understand how the design instructors compared the online classes with traditional F2F classes, and how they perceived the effects of instructor-student connectedness and interaction on teaching motivation and satisfaction in online design teaching. This study found that most instructors felt a lack of social connectedness with the students during the online classes. The paper discusses details of some of the reasons for this lack of felt connectedness and how it affects the teacher satisfaction and motivation in online design education. In addition, it reports the insights given by the instructors about some of the creative learning practices in design courses that they are currently finding challenging to replicate online.

Paper ID: 603

Conceptual Design of a Robot for Cleaning Narrow Spaces

Apala Chakrabarti (VIT University, Vellore)

Abstract: Markets for both cleaning services and cleaning robots are growing fast, globally as well as in Asia. Markets in emerging economies are, however, highly cost-sensitive where most cleaning is currently carried out manually. Cleaning robots reported in literature as well as available commercially focus primarily on cleaning of wide surfaces; access to and cleaning of narrow spaces are not adequately addressed. Further, the cost of current robots is at least twice that of the competition. Using the IISC Design Thinking Approach, this paper focuses on developing near term solutions to these problems: affordable surface cleaning robots for narrow spaces for Indian middle-class domestic markets. The paper proposes conceptual solutions for three such robots all of which meet these criteria. It then compares these with one another using three criteria, area cleaning efficiency, time efficiency, and cost, to select the most promising solution. The work is meant to not only propose novel and potentially affordable and useful solutions for a long standing, unaddressed problem, but also provide a demonstration of the power of a structured design process, and design methods such as requirement analysis, brainstorming, morphological chart, and weighted objectives method, in developing such solutions.

Paper ID: 604

Requirements Capture and Validation: Adopting the Lean Approach for Task Clarification

Komal Shah (Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore) and Manish Arora (Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore)

Abstract: Requirements capture is an important activity in the development of any product, as it contributes to the understanding of the problem, and the solution of any problem can only be as sound as the understanding that it is based on. The consequences of poorly captured requirements can be significant, leading to wasted resources and missed market opportunities. These issues can be addressed by using a market-oriented method for systematically validating the captured requirements, making informed decisions about their alignment with the market opportunity, and consequently, refining the requirements, before they are used in the subsequent stages of product development. This paper outlines a lean-based approach to task clarification stage of engineering design process, for capture, validation and refinement of requirements. The approach is further demonstrated by its application to design of a urinary incontinence care device. The proposed approach will be valuable to design engineers for efficiently capturing, validating, and refining requirements for new product development.